World War II. Part 1 War Clouds Gather

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1 World War II Part 1 War Clouds Gather

2 After World War I, many Americans believed that the nation should never again become involved in a war. In the 1930 s, however, war clouds began to gather. In Italy, Germany, and Japan, economic hard times helped topple democratic governments. Ambitious rulers gained power and set out to conquer neighboring lands. When other nations did not act to stop their expansion, the rulers became bolder.

3 Depression Diplomacy In the 1930 s, Americans were too worried about their economic problems at home to worry about foreign affairs. As foreign threats of war occurred, a strong isolationist mood gripped the nation. Isolationists in Congress helped pass Neutrality Acts which banned arms sales or loans to warring countries.

4 Americans were also warned not to travel on ships of warring nations. President Roosevelt also established the Good Neighbor Policy to have better relations with Latin America. Moves to withdraw military forces from the region were also made. If the world erupted into war, the United States wanted to have friendly relations with its neighbors.

5 3 Major Dictatorships Arise In a dictatorship, a ruler and/or their political party has complete power over a country. In the 1930s, they included: Fascists in Italy Nazis in Germany Military Rulers in Japan

6 Fascists in Italy In 1922, Benito Mussolini seized power. He played on anger about the Versailles Treaty, and convinced the Italian people they had been cheated out of land. He also exploited the fear of Communism. After taking power, Il Duce banned all political parties except his own. He controlled the press, and banned criticism of his government. School children recited the motto, Mussolini is always right.

7 To distract Italians from economic problems at home, he set out to make a new Roman Empire. His troops invaded the African nation of Ethiopia. The Ethiopians fought bravely, but were beaten. They had appealed for help to the League of Nations, but powers like Britain and France had many economic problems to worry about, and did not want to risk going to war.

8 Benito Mussolini and his buddy Adolf Hitler

9 Nazis in Germany An energetic and engaging speaker, Adolf Hitler rose to power by playing on anger for the Treaty of Versailles. He organized the National Socialist German Workers Party the Nazis. The party preached religious hatred, with Jews being blamed for Germany s woes. The Nazis also preached racial hatred by claiming they were a superior race.

10 In troubled times, people listened to him. In 1933, he became leader of Germany. Within two years he ended democracy, and Germany became a totalitarian state. Basic rights were stripped, and Jews were rounded up and persecuted. Hitler violated the treaty by building up forces, and trying to expand territorially. He believed that the other European nations wouldn t stop him.

11 Militarism in Japan The Depression was devastating to Japan. The Japanese became impatient with their government, and in the 1930 s, the military took over. Japan, a small island nation lacked natural resources like coal and oil. They sought to expand in Asia by conquering their neighbors.

12 In 1931 Japan took over Manchuria in northeast China. China appealed to the League of Nations for help. However the League did little more than condemn Japan. In 1937, an all-out war against China was launched. Thousands of Chinese were killed in bombing attacks and raids. The U.S. started to become very concerned.

13 Joseph Stalin-Soviet Dictator Stalin, the Soviet dictator, took steps to strengthen his country with goals to modernize Soviet farming and industry. Factories and farms were taken over by the government, and the people were expected to give superhuman efforts. Millions who resisted were executed or sent to camps. Stalin was readying for German aggression.

14 War in Europe Hitler continued his plans for conquest, and continued to violate the rules. He marched into the Rhineland by France and Belgium. Britain and France only protested. In 1938, Hitler annexed Austria. Hitler also wanted part of Czechoslovakia and promised the allies that was it.

15

16 The following year he took the rest of it. Britain and France realized they had to act, so they tried to align with Stalin. However, he thought they lacked the will to fight, so Stalin signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact. They agreed not to attack each other, and they also secretly agreed to divide up Poland and other areas in Eastern Europe.

17 Hitler was seeking Lebensraum or living space for the German people.

18 With the non-aggression pact signed with the Russians, the Germans knew they could now march into Poland without a Soviet response. On the morning of September 1, 1939, German troops rolled into Poland. Two days later, both Britain and France declared war on Germany. It s come at last, sighed President Roosevelt. God help us all.

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