Rise of Totalitarianism

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1 Rise of Totalitarianism

2 Totalitarian Governments Because of the Depression many people were unhappy with their governments. During the Depression era, many new leaders began making promises to solve the problems of the Depression. Many of these leaders became powerful dictators.

3 What is a totalitarian government? The state is the most important, > individual rights, >individual people. The government has total control over politics and society. The government uses violence and intimidation to gain power, and uses police to keep control Bans other political parties (there can only be one political party)

4 What is a totalitarian government? Propaganda and censorship The government controls the economy, and all state resources. There is only one leader, with absolute power.

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7 Totalitarian States Totalitarian states rose in the 1930 s in: Germany Italy Spain The Soviet Union Japan

8 Stalin in the Soviet Union 1917 Communists take control of Russia 1924 Joseph Stalin becomes leader of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union Stalin makes 5 year plans: To industrialize the country Give the government complete control of the economy

9 Stalin s 5 year plans Collectivize agriculture the government now owns any private land Industrial projects building coal and steel mills, roads, railways. Build industry and military ignoring the needs of the people Control all media, impose censorship, travel restrictions Secret police Government controlled courts

10 Stalin s USSR The Great Purge late 1930 s Stalin killed anyone he believe opposed the communist government or his power Millions of people were convicted of crimes against the state Thousands were killed Many more people died of starvation or exhaustion in Gulags (labour camps in Siberia)

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12 Italy and Mussolini After WW1 Italy had a messed up economy and political conditions Benito Mussolini established the Fascist party The Fascist part emphasized nationalism and challenged democracy He was supported by the government and the middle class He promised to revitalize Italy and restore Italian pride

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14 The Black Shirts Mussolini created a gang called the black shirts they attacked any opponents including communists and socialists Their favorite attack was to force bottles of castor oil down victims throats

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16 Italian National Facist Party In 1921 the National Fascist party won 35 seats. In 1922 the National Fascist party led a march on Rome 26,000 Black Shirts gathered outside the city and demanded the government be turned over to him Mussolini took over. He took the name Il Duce which means ( the leader )

17 Il Duce Mussolini took over He brought all communications, industry, agriculture, and labour under fascist control and turned Italy into a totalitarian state.

18 Fascist Germany After WW1 Germany was in shambles. The kaiser (king) had abdicated (given up his power) and been replaced by a democratic government The government was called the Weimar Republic The German people did not trust the government because it signed the treaty of Versailles Why did people have a problem with the treaty of Versailles?

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20 Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler became the leader of the National Socialist German Workers party (or the Nazis) in The Nazi s gathered support by criticizing the government and the treaty of Versailles. Hitler said he could save the country from Depression and make Germany a great country again.

21 Adolf Hitler By 1933 the Nazi party was the largest party in the Reichstag (German parliament) and he was the chancellor (leader) of Germany. In power, Hitler became the fuhrer (the leader) He also used intimidation and fear to rule the country. He banned all political parties He used the gestapo (a secret police) to enforce his rules

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23 Adolf Hitler He stopped following the terms of the treaty of Versailles, stopped reparation payments and started rebuilding Germany s military. He gave money to farmers and public works projects Unemployment went down The economy improved This made Hitler more popular in Germany.

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25 The Master Race The Nazi party believed that Germans were part of a master race of Aryans a pure race of Northern Europeans Anyone who was not an Aryan was discriminated against: Jewish people, Roma people, Slavic people, anyone with a disability, as well as communists and homosexuals The Nazi s banned non aryans from teaching, going to school or university, being in government or writing books

26 The Master Race The Nazi party would isolate these people by putting them into concentration camps away from everyone else

27 Nuremberg Laws Forced Jewish people to wear the star of David Banned marriages between Jews and Aryans Made it illegal for Jewish people to be doctors or lawyers Encouraged violence against Jewish people

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29 Kristallnacht Crystal Night November 9th, 1939 Nazi mobs attacked Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues for no reason. It was called crystal night because of all of the broken glass Persecution of Jews increased, and more laws were introduced, it made it illegal for them to own businesses and restricted their travel This culminated in Hitler and Heimlich Himmlers final solution and the holocaust.

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31 Facism in Spain During the depression, Spain s democratic government could not prevent widespread poverty, people became more and more dissatisfied. Francisco Franco and fascist rebels called Nationalists tried to overthrow the government in 1936 The rebellion resulted in a civil war that lasted for 3 years.

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33 Civil War in Spain Socialist supporters from other countries went to Spain to join in the fight against Franco and Facism. Franco won with support from Hitler and Mussolini and became the rule of Spain in 1939.

34 Francisco Franco Was a totalitarian dictator, ruling with violence and fear Thousands of people were imprisoned in concentration camps or executed Thousands of people were forced to build railways and dig canals. Franco ruled Spain until he died in 1975.

35 Japan - Totalitarianism Japan was different than European totalitarian states Japan had all of the elements of a totalitarian state: Strong nationalist ideas Belief in racial superiority (their race was better than other races) Government loyal to a single leader the Emperor

36 Japan - Totalitarianism Most of the power in Japan was with the military, and the Zaibatsu large family companies like Mitsubishi The Zaibatsu took advantage of the problems of the Depression to gain control of the country.

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38 Japan and Facism Japan was influenced by European fascism Japan had a gestapo police force called the Kempetai The Kempeitai had to power to arrest, torture or kill anyone Militarists took control of Japan in the 1930 s and began strengthening the empire by conquering other countries and seizing their resources.

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