Chapter 15. Years of Crisis

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1 Chapter 15 Years of Crisis

2 Section 2 A Worldwide Depression

3 Setting the Stage European nations were rebuilding U.S. gave loans to help

4 Unstable New Democracies A large number of political parties made effective government difficult Impossible for one party to win enough support to govern effectively When no single party won a majority, a coalition government formed Temporary alliance of several parties Never lasted very long

5 The Weimar Republic Germany s new democratic government Weaknesses: Lacked democratic tradition Several political parties Germans blamed the government for the country s defeat and humiliation

6 Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany Faced an enormous economic problem Had to pay the expenses of the war Started printing money Money began to lose its value

7 Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany Heavily burdened by reparations Printed more money

8 Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany

9

10 Attempts at Economic Stability Dawes Plan: $200 million loan from American banks to stabilize German currency Better schedule of payment for reparations

11 Attempts at Economic Stability Dawes Plan slowed inflation Germany began to recover 1929: factories were producing as much as before the war

12 Efforts at lasting peace Germany and France signed a treaty promising that they would never again make war on each other Germany was admitted to the League of Nations

13 Efforts at lasting peace Kellogg-Briand Pact Signed by almost every country in the world Renounce war as an instrument of national policy No means to enforce the treaty League of Nations had no armed forces

14

15 Section 3 Fascism Rises in Europe

16 Fascism Militant political movement Emphasized loyalty to the state Obedience to its leader Extreme form of nationalism

17 Fascism Believed nations must struggle Peaceful nations were doomed to be conquered Authoritarian leader Wore uniforms of a certain color Used special salutes Held mass rallies

18 Mussolini

19 Mussolini People wanted a leader who would take action Mussolini promised to rescue Italy Wanted to revive economy and rebuild its armed forces

20 Mussolini Found the Fascist Party in 1919 Wore black shirts Attacked Communist and Socialists Began to win support from middle class, aristocracy and industrial leaders

21 Mussolini October 1922 Fascists march on Rome King Victor Emanuel III puts Mussolini in charge of the government Became Il Duce (the leader)

22 Mussolini Abolished democracy Outlawed all political parties but the Fascists Secret police force Mass media could only publish Fascists doctrines Outlawed strikes

23 Hitler

24 Hitler Joined a right wing political group National Socialist German Workers Party The Nazis

25 Hitler German brand of Fascism if called Nazism Swastika is its symbol Private militia called storm troopers Wore Brown Shirts

26 Hitler Hitler became the Fuhrer, or leader, of the Nazis Plotted to seize power in 1923 Attempt failed Hitler was arrested Sentences to 5 years in prison

27 Hitler Wrote Mein Kampf Set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany Germans were the master race Non-Aryans were inferior Vowed to regain German lands

28 Hitler Nazis become the largest political party Hitler is named chancellor of Germany Nazis win a majority in the Reichstag Hitler uses power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state

29 Hitler Banned all other political parties Had opponents arrested The SS was created They were loyal only to Hitler Gestapo Nazi secret police

30 Hitler Banned strikes Dissolved labor unions Government gained authority over business and labor Put millions of people to work Unemployment dropped

31 Hitler Used the press, radio, literature, painting and film as propaganda tools School children joined the Hitler Youth or League of German Girls

32 Hitler Anti-Semitism: hatred of Jews Key part of Nazi ideology Used Jews as scapegoats for Germany s troubles Passed laws depriving Jews of their rights Violence against Jews mounted

33 Hitler November 9, 1938 Nazi mobs attack Jews in their homes and on the streets Destroyed thousands of Jewish owned buildings Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) Start of eliminating Jews from German life

34 The World Divides Powerful nations of the world divide into two groups Democratic Totalitarian

35 Section 4 Aggressors Invade Nations

36 Japan Weakness of Japan s parliamentary system 1. Limits the power of prime minister and cabinet 2. Little control over armed forces Military leaders reported only to the emperor

37 Japan Military leaders gained control of the country Militarists wanted to restore traditional control of the government to the military Made the emperor the symbol of state power

38 Japan Army ruled in Emperor Hirohito s name Militarists were extreme nationalists Wanted to solve economic problems through foreign expansion Planned a Pacific Empire

39 Japan Japanese business had invested heavily in Manchuria Area rich in iron and coal The army seized Manchuria and set up a puppet government

40 Japan This was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations Many League members protested Japan s seizure of Manchuria Ignored protests and withdrew from the League in 1933

41 Japan Forces swept into northern China Japanese were better equipped and trained Many northern cities fell to the Japanese

42 Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia October 1935 Wanted to avenge the Italian defeat in the 1890 s Ethiopians no match for well equipped Italian army

43 Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia League of Nations condemned the attack Member nations did nothing By giving Mussolini Ethiopia, Britain and France hoped to keep peace in Europe

44 Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty March 1935 Hitler announces Germany would not obey the restrictions of the Versailles Treaty The League of Nations issued a mild condemnations

45 Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty Hitler was ready to take even greater risks March 7, 1936 German troops move into the Rhineland Buffer zone between Germany and France

46 Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty The French were unwilling to risk war British urged appeasement Giving in to an aggressor to keep peace

47 Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty German occupation of the Rhineland did three things: 1. Strengthened Hitler s power and prestige within Germany 2. Balance of power was now in Germany s favor 3. Encouraged Hitler to speed up his expansion

48 Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty Mussolini sought an alliance with Hitler Formed the Rome-Berlin Axis Germany also made an alliance with Japan Italy, Germany and Japan formed the Axis Powers

49 Mussolini and Hitler

50 Civil War Erupts in Spain Spanish civil war Mussolini and Hitler aided Fascist Francisco Franco who was trying to gain power Sent troops, tanks, and airplanes to aid Franco s forces Franco became Spain s Fascist dictator

51 Britain and France repeatedly made concessions to keep peace Were dealing with economic problems due to the Great Depression Wanted deeply to avoid war

52 The United States Supported isolationism: belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided Congress passed the Neutrality Acts Laws banned loans and sales of arms to nations at war

53 German Reich Expands Hitler planned to take Austria and Czechoslovakia Third Reich: German Empire March 1938: Germany annexed Austria Turned next to Czechoslovakia

54 German Reich Expands Demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany Munich Conference: Hitler could have the Sudetenland if he left the rest of Czechoslovakia alone Hitler agreed

55 German Reich Expands Germany takes the rest of Czechoslovakia Hitler next demanded Poland The Poles asked Britain and France for help Hitler was convinced neither would declare war

56 Nazis and Soviets Sign Non Aggression Pact Britain and France asked the USSR to help stop Hitler Stalin bargained with Hitler Germany and Russia pledged never to attack one another August 1939, signed a non aggression pact

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