Dictators Threaten The World

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1 The U.S. Enters WWII Yesterday, December 7, 1941 a date which will live in infamy the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. -FDR

2 Dictators Threaten The World Nationalism-loyalty to one s country above all else- led to the rise of powerful dictators Fascism stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of individuals Totalitarian government exerted complete control

3 Stalin Transforms the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin transformed the communist state into an agricultural and industrial power All private ownership of farms was abolished and replaced with collectives-large government owned farms The Five Year Plan outlined an industrial transformation that cost many Russian lives (estimates range between 8 to 20 million) However, by 1937, the Soviet Union became the second largest industrial power

4 Rise of Fascism in Italy In October of 1922, Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of followers known as the black shirts Benito Mussolini established a totalitarian regime in Italy With the support of the military, police, and government officials Mussolini was appointed Il Duce -the leader

5 The Nazis Take Over Germany Adolf Hitler rose to power during the early 1920s Hitler set forth his beliefs of the Nazi Party in his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Hitler and the Nazi Party were guided by three beliefs; Uniting the German people creating a German Empire, Racial purification, national

6 Civil War in Spain Germany and Italy lent support to the Nationalist insurrection led by general Francisco Franco in Spain. Spanish Civil war ensued Franco s forces eventually won in 1939 establishing Franco as

7 Militarists Gain Control in Japan Success in Manchuria put the militarists firmly in control of Japan s government In July 1937, Japan captured the former Chinese imperial capital of Beijing The Nanking Massacre or Rape of Nanking, was a mass murder, genocide and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking)

8 The Axis Powers Form On September 27, 1940, Imperial Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Their objectives were to "establish and maintain a new order of things" in their respective world regions and spheres of influence Nazi Germany in Europe, Imperial Japan in Asia, and Fascist Italy in North Africa. The signatories of this alliance become known as the Axis Powers.

9 The Holocaust The Holocaust was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and millions of others during World War II, a program of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, throughout Nazi-occupied territory. The Nuremberg Laws (1935) stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs, and property Kristallnacht or night of broken glass (Nazi storm troops attack Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany) Jewish Ghettos, Concentration camps or labor camps housed millions of Jews as a part of the genocide that would take place throughout the late 1930s and into the 1940s

10 The United States Moves Cautiously Away From Neutrality September Roosevelt and Congress pass a cash-and-carry policy Selective Service Act (draft) passed (1940) Congress boosted defense spending Roosevelt is elected to a third term breaking the tradition of two-term presidents established by Washington March 1941 Congress passed the Lend Lease Act America the arsenal of Democracy

11 FDR Plans for War The Atlantic Charter was negotiated at the Atlantic Conference by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was issued as a joint declaration on 14 August Both countries pledged the following: collective security, disarmament, selfdetermination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas The charter became the basis of a new document called A Declaration of the United Nations The term United Nations was suggested by FDR to express the common purpose of the Allies

12 Japan Attacks the United States The U.S. knew an attack was coming they were not sure where. The where would be the American base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. December 7, a date that will live in infamy

13 Reaction to Pearl Harbor Blame for being unprepared should not fall on the military commanders in Hawaii or on FDR. The military lacked sufficient airplanes to protect the area adequately. Intelligence was slow and unsure of exact location for a Japanese attack. Ultimately, responsibility lies with the American people for their reluctance to spend money on necessary defenses. The United States of America declared war on Japan the next day after the attack and three days later on Germany and Italy after the two

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