Unit 5. Canada and World War II

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1 Unit 5 Canada and World War II

2 There were 5 main causes of World War II

3 Leadup to War 1. The Failure of the League of Nations

4 The Failure of the League of Nations League was founded by the winners of WWI in 1919 to create permanent peace through collective security. It failed to prevent war because: its member nations would not support it the US refused to join

5 The Failure of the League of Nations -After WWI Canada distrusted European governments. It was leery of the League of Nations, even though it was a member. When Japan invaded Manchuria (a province of China) in 1931, the League of Nations condemned the action but its member nations would do nothing to stop Japan.

6 The Failure of the League of Nations Italy under Benito Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935.

7 Mussolini invaded using modern weapons against soldiers armed with spears.

8 The Failure of the League of Nations The League objected to the attack and attempted an economic boycott of Italy, but it failed to block delivery of oil supplies. Boycott: organized suspension of trade Germany under Hitler (left the league in 1933) was the first country to officially recognize Italy's annexation of Abyssinia.

9 2. Harshness of the Versailles Treaty After WWI the winners (especially France) used the treaty to punish Germany Germany was humiliated into accepting full blame for WWI the War Guilt Clause Germany was forced to pay exorbitant payments to the Allies - reparations Germany was allowed to keep only a very small army, navy & no air force Germany lost much of its land, regions where German-speaking people lived

10 Territories lost by Germany under the Treaty of Versailles E. Danzig A. Denmark D. Polish corridor B. Alsace Lorraine C. Sudetenland

11 Harshness of the Versailles Treaty These harsh terms helped Hitler come to power in Germany How? He promised to end the humiliation that the treaty imposed on Germans Many other countries (even Canada) agreed that Germany had been treated unfairly

12 3. The Great Depression All western countries were hit hard by the Depression When Hitler(Germany), Mussolini(Italy) and Tojo(Japan) started their aggression, Britain, France and Canada were too focussed on their own economic problems to worry about doing anything to stop them

13 The Great Depression Germany was hit very hard Because of the need to pay reparations, hyperinflation (when prices rise more quickly than salaries) hit Germany before the Depression did! The result a lot of unemployment and Germans wanted a drastic change of govt.! *Economic instability leads to political instability!

14 4. Rise of Fascism & Aggression of Dictators Fascism: a system of government in which nationalism is promoted, workers and industry are regulated by a strong national government, and all opposition is suppressed.

15 Fascism Founded in Italy by Benito Mussolini in 1922 Strong central government, led by a dictator Based on the ideals of nationalism, militarism, and persecution. Believed democracy was weak that people needed a strong leader

16 Characteristics of Fascism Extreme Nationalism: Devotion to one s country even at the expense of innocent people Devotion to a dictator: (all-controlling leader) All opposition is suppressed and the media is censored Militarism: Focus on having a strong army and using war & violence to settle disputes Persecution of minorities and communists Blaming the country s problems on scapegoats such as Communists, Jews

17 Fascism and Nazism Fascism in Germany is called Nazism Had two unique policies: Lebensraum (the quest for living space for all Germans) Anti-Semitism (the hatred, persecution of Jews)

18 Hitler's Nazi party won the most seats in the German election in 1932 *But NOT a majority. he was declared Chancellor in 1933 beginning of the Third Reich Hitler s promise: to reclaim land lost in Treaty of Versailles

19 Fascism and Anti-Semitism Hitler s Nuremberg Laws (1935) stripped German Jews rights and citizenship. They were forced into ghettos In 1941, the Nazis began the Final Solution to the Jewish problem ; all Jews would be sent to concentration camps and exterminated. This was The Holocaust

20 In 1936, Hitler violated Versailles, German troops marched into the Rhineland, a coal and oil-rich region between Germany and France Even though it had a superior army, France did nothing Next Hitler demanded Anschluss; unification of Germany with Austria Germany annexed Austria in 1938.

21 Fascism in Canada Some people thought that only Hitler could stop the spread of communism

22 Fascism In Canada So some Canadians were attracted to Fascism Italian Canadians were sympathetic toward Mussolini's Government The Catholic Church in Quebec saw Nazism as a protector against godless Communists In large cities like Toronto and Montreal there were attacks against Jews, who were also kept out of some professions.

23 Anti-Semitism in Canada Canada turned away many Jewish refugees in the 1930s When a gov t official was asked how many Jews they would allow he replied, None is too many. This anti-semitism helps explain why the gov t was so reluctant to accept them See p.157 & p.200

24 Spanish Civil War In 1936 Spain democratically elected a left-wing, government. The Catholic Church, wealthy Spaniards, fascists and some army forces led by General Franciso Franco, opposed the new government. Franco started a civil war to take control

25 General Francisco Franco

26 Hitler supported Franco.

27 Mussolini did too

28 Russian leader Stalin supported the elected govt.

29 Spanish Civil War Canada, Britain and France had a policy of non-intervention in this war. Some 1200 Canadians secretly fought against the Fascists as part of the Mackenzie- Papineau Battalion

30 German and Italian aircraft bombed the Basque town Guernica during a busy market day

31 The world was outraged

32 Guernica One of Picasso s most famous paintings shows the tremendous suffering

33 Spanish Civil War Germany & Italy helped Franco because it was a chance to test their war machines. Franco's forces won the war in 1939, making him dictator of Spain hundreds of thousands of Spaniards would die under his rule.

34 Hitler and Mussolini learn three lessons from Spain:

35 1. 2. The League of Nations is weak and refuses to intervene The world s democratic powers refuse to stop Hitler 3. Total War - (the use of aircraft to create terror among civilians) is very effective

36 Rise of Fascism & Aggression of Dictators Dictators in Japan, Germany and Italy wanted to take more territories Japan invaded Manchuria Italy invaded Abyssinia Hitler wanted to expand Germany through Lebensraum and Anschluss

37 Hitler wanted more living space for Germans (Lebensraum) by invading the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia

38 5. Non-intervention & Appeasement: This policy of the western countries actually helped promote war! Wanting to avoid war by satisfying Hitler s demands, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler in 1938 The policy of appeasement is the best way to avoid war.

39 At the Munich Conference in September 1938, he tried to satisfy Hitler s demands

40 Neville Chamberlain Edouard Daladier Adolph Hitler Benito Mussolini But Czechoslovakia was not invited!!

41 I believe it is peace in our time. Chamberlain returned to London with the Munich Pact in hand. The document was signed by Hitler. Germany was given the Sudetenland and Hitler renounced any further claims

42 Non-intervention & Appeasement: In Canada, PM King supported Britain s signing of the Munich Pact The heart of Canada is rejoicing tonight at the success which crowned your (Britain s) unremitting effort for peace. What is the message of the quote?

43 Non-intervention & Appeasement: Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, breaking the Munich Pact Then in August 1939 Stalin and Hitler signed a non-aggression pact. This meant if Germany invades Poland the USSR does nothing! Germany & USSR would both attack & split up Poland

44 War begins: On September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland. Great Britain and France declared war on Sept 3, Appeasement of Hitler ended with the German invasion of Poland World War II had begun On Sept 3, a German U-boat sunk the passenger ship Athenia, killing 112 people including Canadians Canada declared war on Germany Sept 10

45 Recap - Causes of WWII 1. Failure of the League of Nations 2. Harshness of Versailles Treaty 3. World Depression 4. The Rise of Fascism and Aggression of dictators: Germany (Hitler), Japan (Tojo), Italy (Mussolini) 5. Non-Intervention & Appeasement of Hitler did nothing to stop the war

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