AGGRESSORS INVADE NATIONS SECTION 4, CH 15

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1 AGGRESSORS INVADE NATIONS SECTION 4, CH 15

2 VOCAB TO KNOW... APPEASEMENT GIVING IN TO AN AGGRESSOR TO KEEP PEACE PUPPET GOVERNMENT - A STATE THAT IS SUPPOSEDLY INDEPENDENT BUT IS IN FACT DEPENDENT UPON AN OUTSIDE POWER. AXIS POWERS GERMANY, ITALY AND JAPAN FRANCISCO FRANCO A FASCIST SPANISH GENERAL WHO RULED OVER SPAIN AS A MILITARY DICTATOR FROM 1939 AFTER THE NATIONALIST VICTORY DURING THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR UNTIL HIS DEATH IN 1975

3 ... A FEW MORE. ISOLATIONISM THE BELIEF THAT POLITICAL TIES TO OTHER COUNTRIES SHOULD BE AVOIDED THIRD REICH OFTEN KNOWN AS NAZI GERMANY FOR THE PERIOD IN GERMAN HISTORY FROM 1933 TO 1945, WHEN GERMANY WAS UNDER THE DICTATORSHIP OF ADOLF HITLER THROUGH THE NAZI PARTY MUNICH CONFERENCE SEPTEMBER 29, 1938 MUSSOLINI PROPOSED A MEETING OF GERMANY, FRANCE, BRITAIN AND ITALY IN MUNICH, GERMANY. THE CZECHS WERE NOT INVITED.

4 JAPAN SEEKS AN EMPIRE DURING THE 1920S, THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT BECAME MORE DEMOCRATIC 1922 JAPAN SIGNED AN INTERNATIONAL TREATY AGREEING TO RESPECT CHINA S BORDERS 1928 JAPAN SIGNED THE KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT RENOUNCING WAR HOWEVER, JAPAN S PARLIAMENTARY HAD SEVERAL WEAKNESSES ITS CONSTITUTION PUT STRICT LIMITS ON THE POWERS OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND THE CABINET CIVILIAN LEADERS HAD LITTLE CONTROL OVER THE ARMED FORCES MILITARY LEADERS REPORTED ONLY TO THE EMPEROR

5 JAPAN SEEKS AN EMPIRE (CONTINUED) IN GOOD ECONOMIC TIMES, THE CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT KEPT POWER, BUT... WHEN THE GREAT DEPRESSION STRUCK, MANY JAPANESE BLAMED THE GOVERNMENT MILITARY LEADERS GAINED SUPPORT AND SOON WON CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY UNLIKE THE FASCISTS IN EUROPE, THE MILITARIST DID NOT TRY TO ESTABLISH A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT THEY WANTED TO RESTORE CONTROL (TAKING IT FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND GIVING IT TO THE MILITARY) MILITARISM MADE THE EMPEROR THE SYMBOL OF STATE POWER

6 EMPEROR HIROHITO, LEADER OF JAPAN IN NAME ONLY NOW THE HEAD OF STATE, WHICH WON POPULAR SUPPORT FOR THE ARMY LEADERS WHO RULED IN HIS NAME JAPAN MILITARIST (LIKE HITLER AND MUSSOLINI) WERE EXTREME NATIONALISTS WANTED TO SOLVE THE COUNTRY S ECONOMIC PROBLEMS THROUGH FOREIGN EXPANSION PLANNED A PACIFIC EMPIRE THAT INCLUDED A CONQUERED CHINA CHINA WOULD PROVIDE JAPAN WITH RAW MATERIALS AND A MARKET FOR ITS GOODS IT WOULD ALSO GIVE JAPAN ROOM FOR ITS RISING POPULATION

7 JAPAN INVADES MANCHURIA JAPANESE BUSINESSES HAD INVESTED HEAVILY IN CHINA S NE PROVINCE MANCHURIA (RICH IN IRON AND COAL 1931, JAPAN SEIZED MANCHURIA DESPITE OBJECTIONS FROM THE JAPANESE PARLIAMENT THE ARMY THEN SET UP A PUPPET GOVERNMENT JAPANESE ENGINEERS AND TECHNICIANS BEGAN ARRIVING IN LARGE NUMBERS TO BUILD MINES AND FACTORIES JAPAN S ATTACK ON MANCHURIA WAS THE FIRST DIRECT CHALLENGE TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. MANY LEAGUE MEMBERS PROTESTED VIGOROUSLY JAPAN IGNORED THE PROTESTS AND WITHDREW FROM THE LEAGUE IN 1933

8 JAPAN INVADES CHINA 1937 JAPAN FORCES SWEPT INTO CHINA DESPITE HAVING A MILLION SOLDIERS (CHINA), THEY WERE NO MATCH FOR THE BETTER EQUIPPED AND TRAINED JAPANESE BEIJING AND OTHER NORTHERN CITIES (THE CAPITAL NANJING) FELL TO THE JAPANESE IN 1937 JIANG JIESHI (THE LEADER OF CHINA S MILITARY) SET UP A NEW CAPITAL IN CHONGQING. AT THE SAME TIME, CHINESE GUERRILLAS, LED BY CHINA S COMMUNIST LEADER, MAO ZEDONG, CONTINUED TO FIGHT THE JAPANESE IN THE CONQUERED AREAS

9 EUROPEAN AGGRESSORS ON THE MARCH THE LEAGUE S FAILURE TO STOP THE JAPANESE ENCOURAGED EUROPEAN FASCISTS MUSSOLINI DREAMED OF BUILDING A COLONIAL EMPIRE IN AFRICA LIKE THOSE IN BRITAIN AND FRANCE ATTACKS ETHOPIA (ONE OF AFRICA S INDEPENDENT NATIONS) IN 1935 ITALIAN PLANS, TANKS, GUNS AND POISON GAS WERE NO MATCH FOR ETHOPIA S SPEARS AND SWORDS THE ETHIOPIAN EMPEROR PLEADED FOR THE LEAGUE S HELP THE LEAGUE CONDEMNED IT, BUT DID NOTHING BRITISH-CONTROLLED SUEZ CANAL WAS USED BY ITALY TO TRANSPORT TROOPS AND SUPPLIES. BRITAIN AND FRANCE DID NOTHING IN HOPES OF KEEPING THE PEACE IN EUROPE

10 EUROPEAN AGGRESSORS ON THE MARCH (CONTINUED) HITLER DEFIES THE VERSAILLES TREATY 1935 HITLER ANNOUNCED THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT OBEY THE RESTRICTIONS OF THE TREATY (LIMITING THE SIZE OF THEIR ARMY THE LEAGUE ISSUED ONLY A MILD CONDEMNATION THE TREATY FORBID GERMANY FROM ENTERING A 30-MILE-WIDE ZONE ON EITHER SIDE OF THE RHINE RIVER (THE RIVER CREATED A BUFFER BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY) MARCH 7, 1936 GERMAN TROOPS MOVED INTO THE RHINELAND FRANCE WAS STUNNED, NOT WILLING TO RISK WAR, BRITAIN URGED APPEASEMENT FRANCE RELENTED HITLER LATER ADMITTED HE W0ULD HAVE BACKED DOWN IF THE FRENCH AND THE BRITISH WOULD HAVE CHALLENGED HIM. THIS MARKED A TURNING POINT IN THE MARCH TOWARD WAR

11 EFFECTS OF THE RHINELAND CONQUEST FIRST, IT STRENGTHENED HITLER S POWER AND PRESTIGE WITHIN GERMANY SECOND, THE BALANCE OF POWER CHANGED IN GERMANY S FAVOR FRANCE AND BELGIUM WERE NOW OPEN TO ATTACK FINALLY, THE WEAK RESPONSE BY FRANCE AND BRITAIN ENCOURAGED HITLER TO SPEED UP HIS EXPANSION HITLER S GROWING STRENGTH CONVINCED MUSSOLINI THAT HE SHOULD SEEK AN ALLIANCE WITH GERMANY OCTOBER 1936 HITLER AND MUSSOLINI REACHED AN AGREEMENT ROME-BERLIN AXIS A MONTH LATER, GERMANY ALSO MADE AN AGREEMENT WITH JAPAN THIS WOULD CREATE THE AXIS POWERS

12 CIVIL WAR ERUPTS IN SPAIN HITLER AND MUSSOLINI AGAIN TESTED THE WILL OF THE DEMOCRACIES IN EUROPE IN THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR SPAIN HAD BEEN A MONARCHY UNTIL 1931, WHEN A REPUBLIC WAS DECLARED (RUN BY LIBERALS AND SOCIALIST JULY 1936 ARMY LEADERS, FAVORING A FASCIST-STYLE GOVERNMENT, JOINED GENERAL FRANCISCO FRANCO IN A REVOLT THE CIVIL WAR WOULD DRAG ON FOR THREE YEARS HITLER AND MUSSOLINI SENT TROOPS, TANKS AND AIRPLANES TO HELP FRANCO S FORCES (THE NATIONALISTS) THE OPPOSITION (THE CURRENT REPUBLIC GOVERNMENT) CALLED THE REPUBLICANS RECEIVED LITTLE HELP FROM ABROAD ONLY THE SOVIET UNION SENT EQUIPMENT AND ADVISERS EARLY 1939, THE REPUBLICAN RESISTANCE COLLAPSED FRANCO BECAME SPAIN S FASCIST DICTATOR UNTIL HIS DEATH IN 1975

13 GUERNICA APRIL 26, 1937, FRANCO S GERMAN ALLIES BOMBED THE ANCIENT BASQUE CITY OF GUERNICA IN SPAIN MAY 1937 PABLO PICASSO MURAL GUERNICA CAPTURES THE CIVILIAN TERROR THIS EVENT IS DEFINED AS THE FIRST TERRORIST EVENT IN THE MODERN WORLD

14 DEMOCRATIC NATIONS TRY TO PRESERVE PEACE INSTEAD OF TAKING A STAND AGAINST FASCISM, BRITAIN AND FRANCE REPEATEDLY MADE CONCESSIONS, HOPING TO KEEP THE PEACE BOTH COUNTRIES WERE DEALING WITH SERIOUS ECONOMIC PROBLEMS THE HORRORS OF WWI HAD CREATED A DEEP DESIRE TO AVOID WAR MANY AMERICANS SUPPORTED ISOLATIONISM FELT THAT WWI HAD BEEN A COSTLY ERROR 1935, US CONGRESS PASSED THREE NEUTRALITY ACTS BANNED LOANS BANNED THE SALE OF ARMS TO NATIONS AT WAR

15 THE GERMAN REICH EXPANDS NOVEMBER 5, 1937 HITLER ANNOUNCES HIS PLANS TO ABSORB AUSTRIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA THIS IS PROHIBITED BY THE VERSAILLES TREATY HOWEVER MANY AUSTRIANS SUPPORTED UNITY MARCH 1938, HITLER SENT HIS ARMY TO AUSTRIA AND ANNEXED IT FRANCE AND BRITAIN IGNORED THEIR PLEDGE TO PROTECT AUSTRIAN INDEPENDENCE 3 MILLION GERMAN SPEAKING CIVILIANS LIVED IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA SUDETENLAND (WESTERN BORDER REGIONS) CREATED A HEAVILY FORTIFIED AREA FORMED THE MAIN DEFENSE AGAINST GERMANY SEPTEMBER 1938 HITLER DEMANDED THAT THIS AREA BE GIVEN TO GERMANY THE CZECHS REFUSED AND ASKED FRANCE FOR HELP

16 BRITAIN AND FRANCE CHOOSE APPEASEMENT MUNICH CONFERENCE SEPTEMBER 29, 1938 PROPOSED BY MUSSOLINI INVITED: BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY AND ITALY (NOT THE CZECHS) BRITAIN AND FRANCE AGREED THAT HITLER COULD TAKE SUDETENLAND HITLER PLEDGED TO RESPECT CZECHOSLOVAKIA S NEW BORDERS PM CHAMBERLAIN (BRITAIN) RETURNED TO LONDON STATING TO THE CROWDS I BELIEVE IT IS PEACE FOR OUR TIME. WINSTON CHURCHILL, A MEMBER OF THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT STRONGLY DISAGREED

17 WINSTON CHURCHILL S RESPONSE WE ARE IN THE PRESENCE OF A DISASTER OF THE FIRST MAGNITUDE... WE HAVE SUSTAINED A DEFEAT WITHOUT A WAR... AND DO NOT SUPPOSED THAT THIS IS THE END... THIS IS ONLY THE FIRST SIP, THE FIRST FORETASTE OF A BITTER CUP WHICH WILL BE PROFFERED TO US YEAR BY YEAR UNLESS, BY A SUPREME RECOVER OF MORAL HEALTH AND MARTIAL VIGOR, WE ARISE AGAIN AND TAKE OUR STAND FOR FREEDOM AS IN THE OLDEN TIME. OCTOBER 5, 1938

18 CHURCHILL WAS RIGHT... FEWER THAN 6 MONTHS LATER... HITLER TOOK CZECHOSLOVAKIA MUSSOLINI SEIZED ALBANIA HITLER DEMANDED POLAND RETURN THE FORMER GERMAN PORT OF DANZIG THE POLES REFUSED AND TURNED TO BRITAIN AND FRANCE FOR AID APPEASEMENT HAD CONVINCED HITLER THAT NEITHER NATION WOULD RISK WAR BRITAIN AND FRANCE ASK THE SOVIET UNION TO JOIN THEM IN STOPPING HITLER S AGGRESSION AS STALIN TALKED WITH BRITAIN AND FRANCE, HE ALSO BARGAINED WITH HITLER THE TWO DICTATORS REACHED AN AGREEMENT PLEDGING NEVER TO ATTACK ONE ANOTHER AUGUST 23, 1939 THEY SIGNED A NONAGGRESSION PACT AS THE AXIS POWERS MOVED UNCHECKED AT THE END OF THE DECADE, WAR APPEARED TO BE INEVITABLE

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