The Coming of War. German Aggression Under Hitler 11/25/2013

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1 The Coming of War German Aggression Under Hitler Resentful of the punitive terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, Hitler immediately withdrew Germany from the League of Nations. Ended the payment of all war reparations. Admiring Mussolini s charge into Ethiopia, Hitler sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland. In 1936, Hitler & Mussolini created the Rome- Berlin Axis. Shortly after, Japan unites against the Soviet Union in the Anti-Comintern Part. (Rome- Berlin-Tokyo Axis) 1

2 Civil War in Spain In 1936, Loyalists defeated Spain s elected republican government against Francisco Franco s fascist movement. 3,000 American volunteers (Abraham Lincoln Battalion- International Brigades). With the help of Mussolini and Hitler, Franco wins in The Munich Conference 1938 Hitler tested the limits of European tolerance when he sent soldiers into Austriathen in September he seized the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. Appeasement reached is apex when France and Great Britain agreed at Munich to allow Hitler this territorial bite. British PM Neville Chamberlain claimed Peace in our Time 2

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4 In 1939, Hitler swallowed up the rest of Czechoslovakia. France and Great Britain announced they would stand by their ally Poland by any Nazi attack. In August of 1939, Soviet leader Josef Stalin signed an Non-Aggression Pact with Hitler. The Soviet Union would take the eastern half of Poland, along with the Baltic States of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia Nazi Germany would claim the west. Nazi-Soviet Pact 4

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6 War Begins On September 1, 1939 Hitler launces blitzkrieg (lighting war) highly mobile land forces and armor combined with tactical aircraft. September 3, GB and France declare war on Germany. 6

7 US Recognition of the Soviet Union In the early 1930s, trade began to slump, American businesses lobbied for diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. Roosevelt felt that closer Soviet-American relations might deter the aggression of Japan. The first US Embassy in the Soviet Union opened in Relations soon deteriorated. Varity of Isolationists Views A 1937 Gallup poll found that 75% of American felt the involvement in WWI was a mistake. Many isolationists predicted that in attempting to spread democracy abroad or to police the world, Americans would lose their freedom at home. Ex. High taxes- increased executive power. 7

8 p.785 Neutrality Acts Reflecting popular desire for distance from Europe s disputes, Roosevelt signed a series of neutrality acts. Congress sought to protect the nation by outlawing the kinds of contacts that compromised US neutrality during WWI. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 prohibited arms shipments to either side in a war once the president had declared the existence of belligerency. 8

9 forbade loans to belligerent countries. warring nations wishing to trade with the US would have to pay cash for their nonmilitary purchases and carry the goods themselves. Roosevelt s Evolving Views FDR shared an isolationist view in the early 1930s. I have seen war I have seen blood running from the wounded. I have seen men coughing out their gassed lungs.i have seen the agony of mothers and wives. I hate war. He promised the US would remain neutral. 9

10 Roosevelt grew troubled by the arrogant behavior of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Three Bandit Nations He condemned the Nazi persecution of the Jews and the Japanese treatment of the Chinese. Roosevelt felt the US was ill prepared for war. When Europe descended into the abyss of war in September of 1939, Roosevelt again declared neutrality and pressed for a repeal of the arms embargo. Roosevelt using methods short of war began to aid the allies Spanish Civil War Hitler and Mussolini give Francisco Franco aid & troops Response 3 rd Neutrality Act US will not trade with a nation in a civil war March 1936 Germany rearms the Rhineland Response G.B. & France can t agree on what to do so they do nothing Hitler announces that Germany will rearm. Response No Response Oct Germany pulls out of the League of Nations Response No Response 1933 Hitler named Chancellor of Germany March 1938 Germany annexes Austria to help Fellow Germans German troops enter without opposition. Response US sets out to build 2 ocean Navy (Atlantic & Pacific Fleets) Aggressive Acts of Germany Sept Hitler looks to take the Sudetenland Response Munich Pact Neville Chamberlain gives it to Hitler to avoid a war Appeasement March, 1939 Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia Response No Response Aug. 23, 1939 Germany & USSR agree not to attack each other. (Nonaggression Pact) Response Poland will be split in half by Germany & USSR Sept. 1, 1939 Germany invades and unleashes Blitzkrieg on Poland Response Britain & France declare war. 10

11 1927 Mussolini named Il Duci Response No Response 1924 Fascist Enter and take over Italian Parliament Response No Response 1922 Benito Mussolini seizes control of the Italian Government Oct Ethiopia is invaded by Italy June 1936 Ethiopia is defeated & annexed by Italy Response L.O.N. embargo & boycott of Italian goods G.B. & France allowed Italy to pass through Suez Canal US 1 st Neutrality Act cannot ship arms to warring nations Spanish Civil War Mussolini sent aid to Francisco Franco Response No Response Oct Italy & Germany sign Rome Berlin Axis Response No Response April 1939 Albania is invaded & annexed by Italy Response No Response Aggressive Acts of Italy 1932 Japan conquers Manchuria. It is renamed Manchukuo Response L.O.N. criticizes Japan Japan drops out of L.O.N. Japan builds up Navy against the 5 Power Treaty July 1937 Japan invades and conquers the rest of China Response US continues to sell arms and supplies to China Oct FDR gives his Quarantine Speech and tells of the International Situation Dec. 12, 1937 Japan attacks and sinks the USS Panay & 3 oil tankers without warning Response Japan apologizes and pays damages which the US accepts Sept Japan invades Manchuria Response Stimson Doctrine US does not recognize Japan taking control of Manchuria Boycott of trade with Japan Aggressive Acts of Japan Sept Japan signs the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Response No Response Dec. 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Response US declares war on Japan Japan, China, and the New Order in Asia While Europe succumbed to political turmoil and war, Asia suffered the aggressive march of Japan. US had interest in Asia; Philippines Islands and trade in China (Open Door Policy). However, both China and Japan were uneasy with the US presence. 11

12 Chinese Civil War American s applauded this. US gunboats and marines remained in China to protect its interests. Japan became suspicious of the US ties with China. Japan was also offended when the US passed the controversial antiimmigration law in Japan invaded the Manchuria in China in Larger than Texas, it served as a buffer against the Soviet Union and provided valuable resources. We are seeking room that will let us breathe Though this violated the Kellogg-Briand Pact and the Nine-Power Treaty, the US and the League of Nations failed to act. 12

13 Roosevelt s Quarantine Speech Isolationists warned that the President was edging toward war. Panay Incident December 12 th, a Japanese aircraft sand the American gunboat Panay. Two Americans were killed. Japan eased tension when the apologized and offered to pay for damages. Alarmed- the US gave loans and sold equipment to China, yet, continue to trade with Japan (oil, cotton, and machinery) 13

14 The administration hesitated to initiate economic sanctions, because it might spark a Japanese-American War, when Germany was more of a concern. 14

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