Iwo Jima War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia. American soldiers arriving on the beach of Omaha: D-Day, June 6, 1944

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2 o September 1939 September 1945 o Most geographically widespread military conflict o Approximately 55 million people died, 40 million MORE than WWI!!! o Most countries involved in the war were against the Axis Powers: American soldiers arriving on the beach of Omaha: D-Day, June 6, 1944 Iwo Jima War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia

3 o Signed to end WWI in 1918 o SEVERE consequences for Germany o Could be the largest factor in the outbreak of WWII What Was So Wrong With It? Germany had to: accept FULL blame for WWI give up colonies and land pay reparations to other countries Which Led To: severe economic stress on Germany German money was almost worthless German people were starving German government was in chaos

4 o Began with Stock Market Crash on Oct. 29, 1929, through 1939 o Many countries economies were struggling Not just Germany o People around the world were out of work with barely any income Which Led To: people having to stand in food lines governments became unstable powerful leaders taking control Here Come The Fascists Fascist governments believed in a strong central government and strict control Most were militaristic Dictators led these governments Opponents of these governments were often jailed or killed

5 Italy 1922: Italy falls to a fascist government. 1925: Benito Mussolini names himself dictator. Japan 1926: Emperor Hirohito takes the throne. Late 1930s: Military general Tôjô Hideki gains power. 1941: Tôjô Hideki becomes Prime Minister.

6 Germany 1929: National Socialist German Worker s Party (Nazis), led by Adolf Hitler, begins to gain power. Jan. 30, 1933: Hitler is appointed Reich Chancellor. Feb. 27, 1933: The Reichstag government building burns. o Hitler blames the German Communist Party. o Many believe Hitler is responsible for the fire and is using propaganda to make Germans afraid for their safety. o The Nazi Party was able to take control of the Reichstag and passed an act that gave Hitler the power to pass any law without Reichstag approval.

7 Hitler begins sending political opponents to concentration camps. Aug. 2, 1934: Hitler names himself Führer, or supreme leader. Why Did the German People Like Hitler? o Germans were desperate for a leader who would improve the economy and restore their national pride. o Many Germans were still bitter about the Treaty of Versailles. o Hitler was charismatic and gave the German people hope.

8 Once dictators came to power, they wanted to form alliances. Oct. 15, 1936 Germany and Italy sign the Rome-German Axis. Nov. 25, 1936 Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact. May 22, 1939 Germany and Italy form a stronger alliance called the Pact of Steel.

9 Sept. 27, 1940 Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact. All three Axis Powers are now allies after WWII began. Mussolini & Hitler

10 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia in north Africa. Once dictators came to power, they wanted to expand their countries empires. o Japan is a small island country = few natural resources. o In order for Japan to become an industrialized country, it needed to take over lands that were rich in natural resources Japan invades Manchuria, a region in China. o Japan claims more Chinese land and seizes European colonies in the Pacific region.

11 1938: Germany annexes Austria. 1939: Germany annexes Czechoslovakia.

12 SHHHHHHHHH.. Hitler and Stalin made a secret agreement to invade Poland from the east and west, and they would split Poland amongst themselves. Aug. 1939: Hitler and the Soviet Union s Joseph Stalin sign the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. What s The Big Deal? If Germany invades Poland, Hitler does not have to worry about fighting the Soviet Union to his east. Great Britain and France had promised military support to Poland if Germany ever invaded it.

13 policy of making concessions to a dictator in order to avoid war Why Weren t These Dictators Stopped? o The League of Nations was an organization of countries who worked together to maintain peace after the end of WWI. o However, the League of Nations was unable to stop Japan because it was too far away. o Italy was given economic sanctions when it invaded Ethiopia, but the League could not enforced it. o Hitler realized the democratic nations were trying to avoid war, so he grew bolder. o Great Britain and France could no longer ignore Hitler when he invaded Poland.

14 Sept. 1, 1939: Hitler invades Poland. Sept. 3, 1939: WWII begins as Great Britain and France declare war on Germany in support of Poland.

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