Lead up to World War II

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1 Lead up to World War II

2 Overview 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1910 s 1930 s Event Recap Political Spectrum Rise of Dictators Failure of the League of Nations Preview: Appeasement Compare and Contrast Causes of World War I and World War II

3 Review: 1910 s 1930 s Define these terms, and, what they mean from Germany s perspective. Define Effect on Germany World War I Treaty of Versailles Roaring 20 s and Great Depression Overall, what would the general feeling of the German people be?

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6 Joseph Stalin: Russia Vladimir Lenin becomes premier following the Russian Revolution, has Marxist ideals of socialism Lenin dies in 1924 before ideals are realized Lenin's two allies fight for power: Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky Trotsky is exiled and eventually assassinated by Stalin's henchmen; Stalin eliminates enemies in show trials

7 Joseph Stalin: Russia Stalin's ideology becomes known as "Stalinism"; form of Communism (which is a form of socialism) that is totalitarian and creates a military state State ownership & control of the means of production (no private ownership) Massive reorganization in Bloodlands adversely affects many Russians

8 Benito Mussolini: Italy In 1919, Mussolini formed the Fascist Party after serving in WWI; he got the support of unemployed war veterans The veterans were organized into armed squads, the "Black Shirts", and terrorized political opponents Italy slipped into political chaos in 1922; Mussolini presented himself as the only one capable of restoring order

9 Benito Mussolini: Italy Dismantled democratic government and took over as dictator in 1925 Fascism is a right wing ideology characterized by totalitarian control, intense nationalism, and elitism Interests of the state > individual rights; private ownership and class system maintained

10 Michinomiya Hirohito: Japan Born into Japanese empire; became Emperor after 1926 death of his father Thus, Emperor regarded as divine by Japanese; regardless, Emperor Hirohito had little power National policy decided by military officials, e.g. invasion of Manchuria; Hirohito tried to encourage cooperation with Britain and U.S.A.

11 Michinomiya Hirohito: Japan Japanese ideology not as clear; militarism and imperialism most evident Imperialism: government ruled by emperor or empress, empire extends rule over foreign countries to acquire colonies Militarism: military efficiency regarded as supreme ideal of the state and all other interests subordinate to those of the military

12 Adolf Hitler: Germany Nazism based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalesozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) Ideology was extremely fascist and nationalistic Foreign/lesser races seen as a threat to nation's people, must be eliminated or removed Believed that German people needed "lebensraum" (living space) in Europe; unity between ALL German people

13 Axis and Allies

14 League of Nations The League of Nations was an international organisation set up in 1919 to help keep world peace. However, it failed because: Not all countries joined the League (the United States, for example, had a new government voted in and they backed out) Russia and Germany were excluded The League had no real power League would encourage nations to stop trading with aggressive nations, but trade was the backbone of the 1920 s The League had no army Member nations had to supply troops, but, World War I left many nations in military recovery The League was unable to act quickly Only met 4 times a year and needed unanimous vote of all members (63 countries in and out of the League in its 20 year run)

15 Failures of the League of Nations: Japan invades Manchuria In 1931, Japan was hit badly by the depression. The army invaded Manchuria in China, an area rich in minerals and resources. China appealed to the League for help. The Japanese government were told to order the army to leave Manchuria immediately; the League was ignored. Other League nations did not want to lose trade with Japan; Japan leaves the League The Massacre of Nanking (or Rape of Nanking) is one of the most controversial incidents of this invasion

16 Failures of the League of Nations: Italy invades Abyssinia In October 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The Abyssinians were outmatched by Italy and needed help. The League condemned the attack and called on member states to impose trade restrictions with Italy. However, people did not want to make an enemy of Italy (wanted to keep as an ally against Germany). In order to stop Italy s aggression, the leaders of Britain and France held a meeting and decided that Italy could have two areas of land in Abyssinia provided that there were no further attacks on the African country.

17 Failure of the League of Nations: Appeasement In May 1937, Neville Chamberlain became Prime Minister of Britain. He believed that the giving in to Hitler s demands would prevent another war. The most notable example of appeasement was the Munich Agreement of September 1938; Germany wanted a part of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) back in German hands. Britain, France and Italy agreed that the Sudetenland would be returned to Germany and that no further territorial claims would be made by Germany. The Czech government was not invited to the conference!

18 Compare and Contrast: Causes of World War I and World War II Similarities Differences Who or what do you feel is to blame for the cause of World War II? Why?

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