Section 1: Dictators and War

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2 Section 1: Dictators and War Objectives: Explain how dictators and militarist regimes arose in several countries in the 1930s. Summarize the actions taken by aggressive regimes in Europe and Asia. Analyze the responses of Britain, France, and the United States to the aggressive regimes.

3 World War I ended when Germany surrendered to the Allies. An uneasy peace followed. Germans resented the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, feeling humiliated in defeat. Italy and Japan were angered by the treaty, expecting to receive more land as Allied victors. Worldwide depression brought despair to many already suffering from war.

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5 Overwhelming problems led some to turn to a new form of government called TOTALITARIANISM. Totalitarianism: theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people. Characteristics: Single-party dictatorship exerting control over all aspects of life Strong, charismatic leader often at head of the government State control of the economy Use of police, spies, and terror to enforce the will of the state Government control of the media and use of propaganda to indoctrinate citizens Use of schools and youth organizations to spread ideology to children Strict censorship of artists, intellectuals, and political rivals with dissenting opinions

6 Totalitarian governments developed in several countries during the 1930s. Country Italy Soviet Union Germany Leader Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler Each of these countries faced crushing problems. Unemployment, hunger, and homelessness were rampant. Totalitarian leaders promised to bring jobs, food, and prosperity. They promised to make their countries great again. In reality, however, the brutal tactics used by totalitarian leaders resulted in the deaths of millions of people.

7 Italy A totalitarian regime formed in Italy. The government seemed unable to deal with the country s many problems. Benito Mussolini formed the Fascist Party. Mussolini and his followers, the Black Shirts, fought to gain power. Mussolini, called Il Duce (the leader), took control of the government, using secret police to maintain control.

8 Unhappy over what land it gained from the Treaty of Versailles, Benito Mussolini forms the Black Shirts in 1921 as a political party and gains seats in Italy s Parliament Led the Black Shirts with a March on Rome in 1922 seizing government offices and the king trying to avoid bloodshed struck a deal with Mussolini making him prime minister Mussolini forms a coalition to control Parliament; uses violence and intimidation for his fascists to make gains, and even has his main opponent murdered In 1926, after an unsuccessful assassination attempt outlaws all other parties, free press, and creates a secret police Sides with the fascists under Francisco Franco in Spain against the loyalists in Spain s Civil War and makes the Rome Berlin Axis with Hitler

9 The Soviet Union The Soviet Union Joseph Stalin took control of the Soviet Union following the death of Vladimir Lenin. Attempted to turn the Soviet Union into an industrial power Forced people to work in factories and on state run farms Killed or imprisoned suspected traitors during the Great Terror Ruled through fear and massive propaganda

10 Stalin consolidated his power and introduced his Five Year Plan to concentrate on the development of iron and steel, machine tools, electric power and transportation with high quotas to be reached; those who did not reach those goals would be executed or sent to Siberia Stalin would target the farmers who were given larger tracts of lands to produce more and they were called kulaks

11 Germany In Germany, the Weimar Republic struggled with overwhelming economic and social problems. Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party, was appointed chancellor. Hitler seized power and created a totalitarian state. Hitler rebuilt the nation s army. His economic policies put people back to work. Many cheered his success. Yet Hitler ruled with unlimited power. Controlled the press and education system Used propaganda to boost his popularity Used the secret police to silence opposition

12 Violently anti Semitic, Hitler openly attacked Jews, blaming them for all of the country s problems. He would try to lead an rebellion in Munich at a Bavarian Beer Hall and fail; arrested and sent to jail. While in jail he wrote a book that would be later called Mein Kampf (My Struggle) where he would give explicit details of how he would lead Germany into its greatest days and a thousand year Reich. Lebensraum: living space for Germans Racist views were prevalent of Aryan supremacy and anti Semitism after Hitler s release from jail, he vowed he would lead Germany through elected means 1933: Hitler elected Chancellor of Germany where began to implement his dictatorship first act is a proclamation for the Germans to boycott Jewish businesses Germany out of the League of Nations

13 Japan Japan did not become a totalitarian dictatorship, but it did come under the influence of strong military leaders. These leaders attempted to solve their country s economic problems through aggressive military conquests. With a demand for more resources, Japanese military leaders under Hideki Tojo usurped power from Hirohito and sought to gain more territory 1931: Japan invaded Manchuria. League of Nations condemns attack; Japan quits the League 1937: Japan wages a war with China Panay incident where US gunboat was shot at by Japan in China; Japan apologizes Japan will be part of the tripartite agreement with Germany and Italy forming an axis

14 A weak League of Nations did little to stop the aggression of the totalitarian states or Japan. Many feared involvement in another war. Some believed that the Soviet Union posed a greater threat than Nazi Germany. Others questioned the resolve of their own country and their allies, and embraced a policy of isolationism.

15 Appeasement Appeasement- giving concessions to a potential enemy in the hope that it will maintain peace The Munich Pact was an agreement in which Britain and France attempted to preserve peace by allowing Hitler to take more territory. Britain and France sacrificed the Sudetenland to Germany in return for peace but peace did not come.

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