2/26/2013 WWII

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1 U.S. Led Into WWII WWII What you ll need to show you know 1. The political and military events that led to U.S. into WWII, the turning points of WWII, results & legacy 2. The causes of the bombing of Pearl Harbor 3. Why American s of Japanese Ancestry (AJA s) were put in internment camps 4. Life at home in the US during WWII 1

2 Terms To Know Interventionist getting involved in another countries affairs Isolationist/Isolationism not getting involved by not joining alliances, economic commitments, etc. Belligerent hostile, aggressive Appeasement voiding war by making special considerations to an aggressor nation diplomacy negotiation between two nations Embargo - partial or complete ban of trade and w/a country, in order to isolate it (diplomatic punishment) Different Forms of Government Communism economic & social system where all property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society & not individuals. Workers are the owners, everyone shares the wealth Soviet Communism dictatorship under the control of Stalin who took power of Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1929 creating a totalitarian government (use of terror to suppress individual rights and control all aspects of life) 2

3 Fascism radical nationalism (loyalty to nation) - state authority over individual rights; military might, ethnic superiority, unquestioning obedience to the leader, & harsh suppression of any opposition Germany Hitler & the National Socialist German Worker s Party (Nazi s) created to prevent Germany from becoming communist & promised economic prosperity Italy Benito Mussolini (Il Duce) w/ WWI veterans create Fascist Party to deal with economic decline after WWI. Use military terror & suppression of individual rights to control Italy Spain General Francisco Franco, joined rebel movement in Spanish Civil War after WWI b/c of economic decline; ruled Spain under a military dictatorship How The U.S. Got Involved in WWII The backstory & events through the bombing of Pearl Harbor 3

4 Backstory World Btwn Wars Unresolved issues of WWI: US did not sign the Versailles Treaty separate peace w/ Germ US did not join the League of Nations. Economic Plan to decide debt issues from the war (Dawes & Young Plan) Germany pay damages to FR & GB Need to borrow $ from US to pay loans Dawes Plan Results: Germany resentful & suffering World not safe for democracy US policy at home: Interventionist v. Isolationism What Led US into WWII? 1. Isolationism After WWI Foreign Policy is isolationism , Americans don t want to get involved. Agreements to support isolationism: Clark Memorandum US not get involved in Latin (South) Am. countries Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 Signed w/ other nations to outlaw aggression & war as a way for countries to solve problems Hoover-Stimpson Doctrine 1932 US will not recognize territories taken by force (Japan) Good Neighbor Policy 1933 FDR wants all countries in the Western Hemisphere to cooperate w/each other & not intervene in others affairs 4

5 U.S. Neutrality Acts of 35, 36, 37: In wars between other countries (not with the US), President could not get involved: Automatic restrictions : Can t sell weapons to belligerent nations. Can t loan or give credit to belligerent nations. Americans can t travel on ships of nations at war (avoid Lusitania) Non-military goods must be purchased on a cash-and-carry basis pay when goods are picked up profitable for U.S. Banned involvement in the Spanish Civil War. America in the 1930s declined to build up its forces! Isolationism U.S. Foreign Policy in the 1920s & 1930s U.S. signs Kellogg- Briand Pact Outlawing War Neutrality Act of 1935 Prohibits Arms Sales to Belligerents (Nations at War) Neutrality Act of 1936 Prohibits Loans to Belligerents Neutrality Act of 1937 allowed trade of nonmilitary goods to belligerents on a cash & carry basis 5

6 U.S. Becomes an Arsenal for Democracy U.S. Foreign Policy in the Late 30s and Early 40s Congress Repeals Neutrality Acts FDR Declares US U.S. an Arsenal for Democracy Destroyers for Bases Deal Jan Lend- Lease Act August, 1941 Dec 7, 1941 U.S. Signs Atlantic Charter Congress Declares War After Pearl Harbor Undeclared Naval War w/ Germany Quick Write List ways Am. made sure they didn t get involved in the affairs of other countries after WWI. What were the laws, policies, agreements to make sure we were on friendly terms with other countries and minded our own business? 6

7 What Led US Into WWII? 2. World Events After WWI: Japanese Aggression Japan p invasion of Manchuria & Shanghai (1931) Panay Incident 1937* U.S. recognizes USSR (before called Russia) as a legit nation 1933 They might help US against Japan Possible trade partner - help US economy during depression Spanish Civil War 1936 military revolt led to dictator Franco (supported by Germ & IT) taking over. U.S. doesn t get involved Panay Incident (1937) December 12, Japan bombed USS Panay gunboat & three Standard Oil tankers on the Yangtze River. The river was an international waterway. Japan was testing US resolve! Japan apologized, paid US, and promised no further attacks. Most Americans were satisfied with the apology. Results Japanese interpreted US tone as a license for further aggression against US interests. 7

8 Fascist Aggression: U.S. DOES NOT GET INVOLVED! 1935: Hitler condemn the Versailles Treaty & the League of Nations -RE-ARMS GERMANY! Mussolini attacks Ethiopia (N. Africa). 1936: German troops sent into the Rhineland (btwn Germ &FR). Fascist forces sent to fight with Franco in Spain. 1938: Austrian Anschluss (re) union btwn Germ & Austria Rome-Berlin Tokyo Pact [AXIS Powers: : Germ, IT, Japan) Munich Agreement Germ got GB, FR, & IT to allow them to take parts of Czechoslovakia Policy of APPEASEMENT! 1939: German troops march into the rest of Czech Hitler-Stalin Non-Aggression Pact (Germ & Russia friends until Germ turns on them) September 1, 1939: German troops march into Poland blitzkrieg WW II begins!!! 8

9 Quick Write: By 1939, should Am. have gotten involved in any of the events going on in Europe and Asia? When? Why? U.S. Response to Fascist Aggression: Neutrality Act of 1939: U.S. help Allies ( GB, FR & U.S.) cash and carry belligerent nations can buy U.S. arms if used own ships and paid cash Selective Service Act, 1940 required registration of all men and train 1.2M troops Destroyers for bases gave older U.S. destroyers in return allowed to build U.S. bases on British islands in Caribbean Results: Aggressors can t trade w/u.s. U.S. Economy improves increase in war related goods U.S. gets out of 1937 recession U.S. becomes arsenal of democracy 9

10 Four Freedoms speech, FDR to Congress 1941 to justify lending money to Britain Support nations committed to freedom of speech, religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear Lend-Lease Act of 1941 Replace cash & carry; Allies don t have to pay up front helps w/ keeping Am. safe. Allows Am. to be neutral w/out being involved appeases the Am. isolationist U.S, Japan & Bombing of Pearl Harbor : U.S. helps Japan modernize economy & military Friends 1930 s Depression affects Japan s economy. Japan needs resources (oil, steel, food, etc). Depends on US for 80% of oil imports. Japanese military invade China (Manchuria) for resources. League of Nation does nothing = Appeasement 1940 US passes Export Control Act - cutting oil, iron and steel exports to Japan. Not fully enforced until Japan s response to U.S. Oil Embargo BOMBING of PEARL HARBOR Dec. 7, 1941 U.S. Response declare war on Japan; Japan s allies (IT, Germ) declare war on U.S. 10

11 Quick Write: What were the political and military events that led to U.S. into WWII? 11

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