New Leaders and New Ideas in Europe during the 1930s

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1 New Leaders and New Ideas in Europe during the 1930s

2 Nazism Totalitarianism Communism Fascism These theories are completely different theories that are completed opposed to one another; however they demonstrate the very same behavior.

3 Characteristics of Totalitarianism Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state. Political, military, economy, social, and cultural. Highly nationalistic. Flags, salutes, rallies, and uniforms. Strict controls and laws. Military state. Secret police, army, and navy.

4 Characteristics of Totalitarianism Censorship. Opposing literature and ideas. Propaganda Media Radio, newspapers, and posters. One leader A charismatic dictator. Total conformity of people to ideas and the leader. Terror and Fear.

5 Soviet Communism Also known as Leninism or Stalinism. Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from Combines elements of communism with a totalitarian and military state.

6 Founder of Bolshevism: Vladimir Lenin His Early Years --Exiled to Siberia in 1897 Committed to Class Struggle and Violent Revolution Moved to London in 1902 and befriended Leon Trotsky His Book: What is to be Done? Professional vanguard is required to lead the revolution (revolution from above)

7 Lenin Steps into This Vacuum Tsar s abdication Lenin s arrival in Petrograd Remember how?? Political Slogans: Peace, Land, Bread All Power to the Soviets Low popularity

8 The November Revolution Nov. 6, 1917 Coup d etat grabbed power the Bolsheviks lost the one and only election in Russian democracy ended a Council of People s Commissars was created All private property was abolished Largest industrial businesses nationalized

9 November Revolution (cont) Political Police organized: CHEKA * Red Army Bolshevik Party renamed Communist Party

10 November Revolution (cont) Lenin s 1st task - get Russia out of the war --The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) negotiated with the Germans. Civil War, Reds versus Whites Complete breakdown of Russian economy and society Elimination of opposition TERROR!!

11 Interpreting the Russian Revolution The official Marxist interpretation The importance of a permanent international revolution Imposed Revolution on an unwilling victim. A Social Revolution

12 Fascism & totalitarianism Fascist ideology is totalitarian, which means a political system that controls every aspect of life, so that there is no private sphere or independent organizations. Fascism promotes aggressive nationalism and dominion of the totalistic state over the individual.

13 Fascist ideology & Mussolini Italian dictator Benito Mussolini coined the term in 1919, referring to the Roman symbol for power through unity a bundle of reeds called fasces, individually weak but collectively strong.

14 Ideas of Mussolini Mussolini argued that citizens were empowered when they were subordinated to the state. By blindly obeying the state, they helped the state thrive, which benefited them. To Mussolini spoke for empowering the people.

15 Anti-individualistic Anti-democratic Anti-egalitarian Anti-capitalist Anti-conservative Anti-intellectual Anti-internationalist Fascist Principles

16 A Definition of Fascism Fascism is the totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The State not only is authority which governs and molds individual will with laws and values of spiritual life, but it is also power which makes its will prevail abroad.for the Fascist, everything is within the State and neither individuals nor groups are outside the State...For Fascism, the State is an absolute, before which individuals or groups are only relative.liberalism denied the State in the name of the individual; Fascism reasserts the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual. -- Enciclopedia Italiana, 1932

17 1. Ideology A form of extreme nationalism. It celebrates the nation or the race as an organic community transcending all other loyalties. Powerful and continuing nationalism. Constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, etc. Flags are seen everywhere.

18 2. Subordination to the State Fascism seeks forcibly to subordinate ALL aspects of society to its vision of organic community [usually through a totalitarian state]. It uses organized violence to suppress opposition. Glorification of force. Social Darwinism. Is anti-democratic.

19 3. Cult of State Worship The individual had no significance except as a member of the state. The fascists were taught: Credere! [to believe] Obbedire! [to obey] Combattere! [to fight]

20 5. Militarism

21 7. Identification of Enemies or Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe. This foe could be racial, ethnic, a religious minority, liberals, communists, etc.

22 The Rise of Mussolini

23 Benito Mussolini ( ) Originally a Marxist. His role model - Lenin By 1909 he was convinced that a national rather than an international revolution was necessary. Edited the Italian Socialist Party newspaper. Avanti! [Forward!].

24 Mussolini Comes to Power 1921 election Fascists included in the political coalition bloc of P. M. Giovanni Giolitti s government [they win 35 seats]. October, 1922 Mussolini s coup d etat. March on Rome 25,000 Black Shirts staged demonstrations throughout the capital.

25 The Fascists Consolidate Power ( ) New laws passed to create the legal basis for Italy s official transformation into a single-party state: Independent political parties & trade unions were abolished. Freedom of the press was curbed. Special courts created to persecute any political opposition. National police force created [with a secret police component].

26 State Corporatism 1926 The National Council of Corporations created. Guilds of employers and employees established to manage the 22 sectors of the economy. Supported by small capitalists, low-level bureaucrats, and the middle class They all felt threatened by the rise of Socialist power! The goal harmonize the interests of workers, managers and the state by abolishing class warfare. The reality This system retarded technological progress and destroyed workers rights.

27 Mussolini Was Hitler s Role Model

28 Nazism Fascism taken to its extreme form. Socialism in the extreme.

29 Nazism Extreme form of Fascism, Nationalism, and Totalitarianism. Based on the beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party. Belief in a superior race. The Aryan or master race. Belief that all Germans should have a living space in Europe. Violent hatred of Jews. Belief that Jews were the cause of all of Germany s problems. Led by Adolf Hitler from

30 HITLER & THE RISE OF NAZI GERMANY Setting the scene a. November 1923: Adolf Hitler tries to follow Mussolini s example b. The coup failed and Hitler was soon behind bars

31 II. The Weimar Republic a. WW I was ending and the Kaiser abdicates b. Modern leaders signed the armistice and the Treaty of Versailles C. Weimar Republic: democratic government with a constitution which set up a parliamentary system led by a chancellor

32 d. Struggles of the Republic i. Communists demanded radical changes ii. Conservatives attacked the government as too liberal and weak iii. Germans of all classes blamed the Weimar Republic for the hated Versailles treaty and heavy reparations. iv. Germans look for scapegoats and blamed German Jews for economic and political problems

33 e. Inflation i. Germany could not pay the reparations to France so France occupied the coal-rich Ruhr Valley ii. Government printed huge quantities of paper money iii. German mark became worthless iv. Salaries rose by billions of marks v. Prices skyrocked vi. German families savings were wiped out!

34 f. Recovery and collapse i. Western powers bring inflation under control ii. United States, Britain, and France approve a plan to reduce German reparations iii. France withdraws from the Ruhr under the Dawes Plan.

35 iv. American loans help the German economic recovery. v. The Great Depression hits Germany turns to Adolf Hitler.

36 III. Adolf Hitler a. Born in Austria and went to Vienna at age 18 b. While living in Vienna, he develops a fanatical anti-semitism: anti-jewish feelings and actions c. Fought for Germany during WW I d. despised the Weimar Republic for being too weak.

37 e. Joined a small socialist group and became the leader of the National Socialist German Workers or NAZIs. f. Wrote Mein Kampf basic book of Nazi goals and ideology g. Promised German people to end reparations, create jobs, defy the Versailles Treaty by rearming Germany

38 h. Hitler demanded unquestioning obedience and was known as the Fuhrer.

39 IV. Hitler s Third Reich a. Hitler is elected chancellor in 1933 under the Weimar constitution b. First Reich: Holy Roman Empire c. Second Reich: Bismarck s Empire until 1871 d. Third Reich: Hitler s idea of creating a German Master Race to dominate Europe for 1,000 years.

40 e. Totalitarian State i. Hitler organized an efficient but brutal system of terror, repression and totalitarian rule. ii. Secret police: gestapo root out opposition iii. Germans cheered Hitler s ability to end unemployment and revive German power.

41 f. Economic Policy i. Combat the Great Depression 1. Public Work Programs 2. Program to rearm Germany 3. Crony capitalism and brought big business and labor under government control

42 g. Social Policy i. Nazis indoctrinated young people with their ideology Ii. Passionate speeches by the Fuhrer urging young Germans to destroy their enemies without mercy

43 h. Purging German culture i. The Arts 1. Nazis wanted to purge or purify German culture 2. Denounced modern art 3. Condemned jazz 4. Glorified old German myths 5. Burned books which they disapproved All Quiet on the Western Front

44 ii. Nazis and the Churches 1. Despised Christianity as weak and flabby 2. Replaced religion with his racial creed 3. Combined all religions into one state church

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