The Russian Revolution(s)

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1 The Russian Revolution(s)

2 Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions, but did have instruments of oppression (secret police)

3 Russian Krestyanin (Peasant)

4 Broom Factory

5 Russian Steel Workers

6 The Revolution of 1905 A discontented working class Vast majority of workers concentrated in St. Petersburg and Moscow The countryside: poor peasants No individual land ownership

7 Bloody Sunday Jan

8 Putilov Machine Works

9 General Strike, by Oct 17

10 Nicholas II Opens the Duma

11 11

12 Conservatism Continues:

13 Alexis: Crown Prince with Hemophilia

14 Rasputin: Very Popular Among Russian Noblewomen Hated by everyone else 14

15 World War I Poorly supplied troops Chaos and Disintegration of the Russian Army --Battle of Tannenberg (August, 1914) Mass mutinies and desertions

16 World War I: The Last Straw War revealed the ineptitude and arrogance of the country s aristocratic elite Corrupt military leadership and contempt for ordinary Russian people Average peasant had very little invested in the war

17 The Collapse of the Imperial Government Nicholas leaves for the Front September, 1915 Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos Alexandra and other high government officials accused of treason

18 The Collapse of the Imperial Government Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916

19 The Two Revolutions of 1917 The March Revolution (March 12) The November Revolution (November 6)

20 Alexander Kerensky

21 Kerensky as Prime Minister

22 The March (February) Revolution Origins: Food riots and strikes Tsar abdicated on March 17 th Duma declared itself a Provisional Government on March12th Very Popular Revolution The Petrograd Soviet --Order #1

23 Nicholas II at Tsarskoye Tseloe

24 February (March) 1917

25 Soviet Political Ideology More radical and revolutionary than the Provisional Government Most influenced by Marxist socialism Two Factions -- Mensheviks -- Bolsheviks

26 Founder of Bolshevism: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin His Early Years --Exiled to Siberia in 1897 Committed to Class Struggle and Revolution Moved to London in 1902 and befriended Leon Trotsky Brought back by the Germans

27 Vacuum of Leadership in Russia Petrograd Soviet dominated by Mensheviks Failure of the Provisional Government Workers refusing to work and soldiers refusing to fight Peasants expropriating the land outright Power was literally lying in the streets of Petrograd

28 Petrograd Demonstration

29 Petrograd, February Revolt of the Pavlovsky Guards Regiment

30 The Provisional Government Main Parties: Kadets (Liberals) Octobrists (progressive aristocrats) Progressivists (industrialists and capitalists)

31 Bolsheviks Storming the Winter Palace

32 Lenin Steps into This Vacuum Amnesty granted to all political prisoners in March of 1917 Lenin s arrival in Petrograd A tremendously charismatic personality Peace, Land, Bread All Power to the Soviets Bolshevik party membership exploded Consolidation of Bolshevik power

33 The November (October) Revolution Council of People s Commissars All private property of wealthy was abolished and divided among the peasantry Largest industrial enterprises nationalized

34 Leon Trotsky

35 November (October) Revolution Political Police organized: CHEKA Revolutionary army created with Trotsky in charge -- Red Army Bolshevik Party renamed Communist Party in March of 1918 The Treaty of Brest- Litovsk negotiated with the Germans Humiliating

36 November (October) Revolution Humiliating Treaty would be nullified since all of the west was on the verge of revolution Civil War fought between Reds versus Whites Complete breakdown of Russian economy and society

37 Red Guards

38 Trotsky as Commissar of War

39 39

40 Reds and Whites

41 Felix Dzerzhinsky Head of the Cheka

42 Red Terror Summer 1918

43 Did you volunteer for the Red Army?

44 White Recruitment Poster

45 White Troops and Their Red Opponents

46 Foreign Intervention

47 US Soldiers, Murmansk

48 Royal Family with Cossack Guards 48

49 Devastation of War Ukraine

50 Misery 50

51 Famine of

52 Stages of the Russian Civil War Nov Nov Rising Tensions, Conflict, End of WWI Nov Nov Peak of White Fortunes in South Nov July 1921 Red Victory by 1920, Death of Enver Pasha 1921 Rebellions against the Soviets by peasants, workers, and soldiers suppressed

53 Young Revolutionaries Eventually Victorious 53

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