1 AP European History Unit 9.2 The Russian Empire and the Russian Revolution:
2 I. Review: Russia from A. Tsar Alexander I (r ) 1. Initially favored some liberal ideals and Enlightened despotism (like Napoleon) a. In 1803, gave nobles permission to free their serfs but few nobles agreed to do so b. Created a more efficient regime
3 2. After Napoleon s defeat in 1815, Alexander grew increasingly reactionary. a. Russian nobles opposed any liberal reforms that threatened their influence. b. He saw the Russian Orthodox Church as an instrument in controlling his subjects. c. Liberals were monitored in universities and schools. d. Traveling abroad to study was prohibited.
4 3. Proposed the Holy Alliance after the Congress of Vienna a. First major post-napoleonic attempt to quell liberalism. b. Proposed for all monarchs to uphold Christian principles of charity and peace. c. Plan proved to be overly ideological and impractical and few took it seriously. d. Liberals saw it as a sort of unholy alliance of monarchies against liberty and progress.
5 B. Decembrist Uprising (1825) 1. Alexander s death led to a power struggle. a. His brother, Constantine, was supported by liberal nobles but he did not want the throne. b. Younger brother, Nicholas, was next in line to the throne and was supported by conservatives.
6 2. Decembrists (junior military officers): liberal upper-class opponents of the autocratic gov t who supported popular grievances among Russian society. a. First upper-class revolt against Russia s autocracy b. Sought to prevent Nicholas I s assumption of the throne c. Revolt eventually suppressed by Nicholas I and Decembrist leaders were executed
7 C. Tsar Nicholas I (r ) 1. Europe s most reactionary monarch a. Relied on political advice from military leaders b. Believed in divine right of monarchs c. Opposed western ideas penetrating into Russia
8 d. The principles of autocracy, orthodoxy and nationality were the state s foundation e. Revolutions of 1830 and especially 1848 convinced Nicholas that suppressing liberalism was crucial to maintaining order.
9 2. Russia became a police state with censorship, a secret police (the Third Section ), and state-sponsored terrorism. a. No representative assemblies b. Education was limited and university curricula were carefully monitored. c. Though Nicholas (like Alexander I) believed serfdom was inefficient, he believed trying to change it would only stir up rebellion.
10 d. Autocracy resulted in the severe alienation of Russian intellectuals. Many western books, however, were smuggled into Russia.
11 3. Intellectuals developed two opposing camps in this period: a. Slavophiles saw the culture of the Russian village (the mir) as superior to the West. Saw the mir as a foundation for a future socialist society Opposed to autocracy but supported the tsar Favored the dominance of the Orthodox Church on society
12 Suspicious of corruptive bourgeoisie influence as it existed in France and Britain
13 b. Westernizers wanted to extend the genius of Russian culture by industrializing and setting up a constitutional gov t. Sought an end to serfdom Due to a lack of representative gov t in Russia they believed revolution was the key to change.
14 II. Russia during the Age of Realpolitik and the Age of Mass Politics A. Defeat in the Crimean War ( ) marked a turning point in Russian history. 1. Russia realized it had to modernize or it would remain vulnerable militarily and economically.
15 a. The Russian army was largely composed of uneducated & unskilled serfs who performed poorly on the battlefield. b. Freeing the serfs now seemed necessary for military and economic modernization.
16 2. Russia lacked a sizeable middle class that promoted liberalism economically, politically and socially. a. This was a key difference for why Russia lagged behind western and central Europe (e.g. Britain, France and Germany). b. The nobility (who controlled the serfs) were not a force for modernization and reform.
17 B. Alexander II (r ) 1. Perhaps the greatest reformminded tsar since Peter the Great. a. Most liberal ruler in Russian history prior to 20th century. b. Yet, Russia still remained largely autocratic
18 2. Alexander believed serfdom had retarded Russia s modernization: agriculture had been poor for centuries. a. 90% of the people worked in agriculture. b. Serfs could be bought or sold with or without land in the early 19th century. c. Nobles enjoyed an unlimited source of labor from serfdom and thus were not motivated to improve production.
19 d. Serfdom had led to over 1,500 peasant uprisings during the first half of the 19th century. Alexander sought to convince nobles that if serfdom were not abolished peasants would take matters into their own hands against the nobles. e. Serfs could be conscripted into the army for 25 years.
20 3. Emancipation Act,1861 a. Abolished serfdom Peasants were no longer dependent on the lord Free to move and change occupations Could enter contracts and own property b. Land was given to serfs via the mirs.
21 c. Nobles were compensated by the state for land given to serfs. Serfs had to gradually pay back the state over a period of about 50 years.
22 d. Yet, most Russians were not significantly impacted by the Emancipation Edict. Mirs: most Russians lived in communes which were highly regulated and that organized payments to the state for land lost to nobles. Collective ownership and responsibility made it difficult for individual peasants to improve agricultural methods or leave their villages.
23 Alexander II with his dog, Milord, in 1870 e. Many serfs migrated to cities, despite restrictions on leaving the mirs.
24 4. Zemstvos established in 1864 by Alexander s decree: district or village assemblies that administered local areas a. Significant step towards popular participation where peasants would elect representatives b. Yet, in reality noble lords controlled the Zemstvos and thus had more influence than towns and peasant villages.
25 5. Other reforms a. Judicial system improved Modeled on British system; separate judicial branch Public trials by jury Yet, czar could overturn court decisions and political cases were often transferred to a secret court martial b. Term of military service reduced from 25 to 6 years
26 c. Brutal corporal punishment was eased d. Censorship was relaxed during his early years but eventually reinstated e. Education liberalized
27 6. Industrialization in Russia was stimulated by railroad construction. a. Russia had fallen behind the major industrialized nations. b. Russia needed better railroads, better armaments and reorganization of the army. c. Between 1860 and 1880 railroad mileage grew from 1,250 to 15,500.
28 d. Railroads enabled Russia to export grain and earn profits for further industrialization. e. Stimulated domestic manufacturing: industrial suburbs grew up around Moscow and St. Petersburg, and a class of modern factory workers began to emerge f. Strengthened Russia s military giving rise to territorial expansion to the south and east
29 7. Critics of Alexander II late in his reign a. Alexander increasingly became more conservative and autocratic. b. Anarchists, led by Mikhail Bakunin, believed the state should be destroyed. c. Nihilism: intellectuals who believed in nothing but science and that the social order should be completely wiped out and built up from scratch.
30 d. In response to nihilism, a radical populist movement emerged that sought a utopian agrarian order shared Slavophile beliefs
31 8. Alexander II assassinated in 1881 by radicals who bombed his carriage in St. Petersburg
32 C. Alexander III (r ) 1. Most reactionary tsar of the 19 th century a. Sought to rule Russia through Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Russification (nationalism)
33 b. Zemstvos influence was reduced and judicial power shifted to the police and military courts. c. The state s grip on higher education was tightened. d. Russian Orthodox Church persecuted other religious groups (that constituted about 1/3 the empire s population).
34 e. Encouraged anti-semitism: pogroms resulted in severe persecution of Jews (many emigrated) f. Languages other than Russian were banned (although Russians accounted for only 40% of the empire s population).
35 D. Count S. Y. Witte ( ) oversaw Russian industrialization in the 1890s. 1. Aggressively courted western capital & advanced technology to build great factories. 2. Resulted in the rise of a small Russian middle-class.
36 3. Gov t-built state-owned railroads doubled to 35,000 miles by Construction of the Trans- Siberian Railway helped to modernize Russia; connected Moscow with Vladivostok 5,000 miles
37 The Trans-Siberian Railroad
38 4. Russia was put on the gold standard to strengthen the government s finances. 5. By 1900, Russia was fourth in steel production (behind U.S., Germany & Britain). 6. By 1900, Russia exported half the world's refined petroleum.
39 7. As in western Europe, industrialization in Russia contributed to the spread of Marxist thought and the transformation of the Russian revolutionary movement after 1890 (as industrial workers increasingly felt exploited).
40 E. Despite economic and social reforms, Russia's economic problems were still profound by /3 of Russian farmland was not used; food could not keep pace with increasing population. Russia had become the most populous nation in Europe by the late-nineteenth century. 2. Depression of 1899 wiped out gains since 1890 resulting in tremendous unemployment.
41 3. 60% of the population was illiterate, although literacy was growing in urban areas like Moscow and St. Petersburg. 4. Russia s plight was aggravated by the Russo-Japanese War of
42 F. Nicholas II (r ) 1. Last of the Romanov tsars 2. Russo-Japanese War ( )
43 a. Russians had established a sphere of influence in Manchuria and now sought Korea (which had just been acquired by Japan in the Sino-Japanese War). Sought a railroad through Manchuria to Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. b. Russia s fleet was destroyed by Japan in 1904 and Russian losses were heavy at the bloody battle at Mukden.
44 c. Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) Russia accepted Japanese control of Korea, concessions to Japan in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin island
45 d. The Russian government now turned its attention away from east Asia and focused instead on expanding Russian control in the Balkans. e. Russia s dismal showing in the war became a major cause of the Revolution of Many Russians were angry that soldiers were dying in a far away location for a losing cause.
46 A British cartoon illustrates Russia s declining prestige as the sands of the hour glass are running out. Russia s Pacific Fleet had been largely destroyed by Japan. An even greater naval disaster would occur four months later.
47 A Japanese woodcut print shows the Russian tsar waking up from a nightmare where Russian forces are returning from battle. Date is 1904 or 1905
48 2. Revolution of 1905 a. Liberalism had gradually grown in certain segments of the Russian population over the previous 50 years. A professional middle class emerged due to increased educational opportunities, increased gov t jobs, and industrial development. Liberals also included some nobles and some leaders of the Zemstvos.
49 Poor economy and strains of war led peasants, the growing urban proletariat, and the middle class to demand reforms. Some reforms included reduction of the work day (1897) and a factory insurance law (1903).
50 b. Bloody Sunday, Jan ,000 workers and peasants marched peacefully to the "Winter Palace" asking the tsar for reforms. Tsar was not in town.
51 Army fired on marchers in cold blood, killing about 300 and wounding an additional 1,000.
52 c. A general strike, peasant revolts and troop mutinies paralyzed Russia by October and Nicholas was forced to make concessions. One of the largest concessions was the creation of a national parliament the Duma. Serfs no longer had to make payments to the state for lands received due to emancipation.
53 Poles and Lithuanians were allowed to once again use their own languages. Religious toleration allowed in Poland. Political trials were returned to regular courts. Some restrictions on Jews were abolished.
54 d. The October Manifesto of 1905 created the Duma The Duma met for the first time in spring 1906 Majority consisted of Constitutional Democrats (Kadets) who were liberal Duma was a national assembly that would serve as an advisory body to the tsar Representatives elected by universal male suffrage
55 Granted freedom of speech, assembly and press Tsar retained absolute veto Revolutionaries were divided, however, resulting in the Duma having no real influence. Propertied classes benefited at the expense of workers, peasants and national minorities.
56 e. Nicholas dissolved the Duma twice in Some Kadets sought to reduce tsar s power, give certain noble lands to peasants, and make gov t answerable to the Duma. Many liberals and middleclass professionals continued to urge reform. Third Duma created in 1907 that was more conservative and sympathetic to the tsar.
57 f. Repression was used successfully by the regime to weaken political opponents or sympathetic critics of the regime.
58 3. Russia experienced mild economic recovery between 1907 and a. Peter Stolypin: new prime minister who pushed through important agrarian reforms to break down collective village ownership of land and encouraged the more enterprising peasants (kulaks) Much land was transferred from communes to private owners.
59 b. Stolypin assassinated in 1911 (perhaps at the request of nobles who saw him as too liberal) c. Between 1911 & 1914 many industrial strikes and peasant violence occurred as dissatisfaction with the tsar s regime grew.
60 4. Russia s poor showing in World War I directly led to the Russian Revolution in 1917.
61 III. Rise of socialism in Russia A. Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party founded in 1898 with Vladimir Lenin as one of its leaders. 1. Lenin became the heir to Marx in socialist thought. Lenin was exiled to Siberia and later, Switzerland. Lenin in a police mugshot, 1895
62 2. Three basic ideas central to Lenin s philosophy: a. Capitalism could be destroyed only by violent revolution; he denounced revisionism b. Socialist revolution was possible under certain conditions, even in relatively backward Russia. Peasants were poor and therefore potential revolutionaries
63 c. Necessity of a highly disciplined workers party, strictly controlled by a dedicated elite of intellectuals and full-time revolutionaries This constituted a major difference with Marx who believed in a revolution controlled by the workers.
64 B. 1903, Social Democrats split into two parties: 1. Mensheviks: Wanted to await the evolution of capitalism and the proletariat; sought a more democratic party with mass membership. 2. Bolsheviks: followed Lenin s ideas
65 C. In light of the 1905 Revolution ( Bloody Sunday ) the Bolsheviks in exile planned a revolution. 1. Lenin and Leon Trotsky formed workers Soviets (councils of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals). 2. Influence of Socialists, soldiers Soviets, and other parties and soldiers increased before WWI.
66 IV. The February Revolution, 1917 A. Causes for the overthrow of Nicholas II 1. Russia s poor showing in the Russo-Japanese War earlier had damaged the regime s credibility and had led to some reforms in After 1905, widespread discontent with the regime continued due to the lack of significant reforms after the Revolution of 1905.
67 3. Most important cause: the tremendous human and economic toll on Russia during World War I a. Massive military casualties and food shortages b. The tsar s leadership during the war was increasingly seen as incompetent.
68 c. While the tsar was off fighting the war, the tsar s widely hated wife Tsarina Alexandra and court was unduly influenced by the notorious Rasputin. The tsarina believed Rasputin had mystically cured her son of hemophilia. Russia s gov t ministers were increasingly frustrated by Rasputin s hold on the royal family. Noble conspirators eventually killed him.
69 Rasputin s seeming hold on the royal family seriously undermined its authority.
70 B. The Revolution was centered in St. Petersburg (Petrograd). 1. Revolution was started by massive strikes in January and February, largely caused by food shortages. a. Notably, women rioted for bread in Petrograd while supported by workers and soldiers.
71 2. Nicholas II abdicated his throne on March 2. a. The royal family was placed under house arrest. b. Only about 1,000 Russians had died in the revolution. 3. The Duma responded by declaring a provisional gov t on March 12, 1917.
72 C. Provisional Government 1. A dual government ruled Russia. a. The Provisional Gov't consisted of Constitutional Democrats and liberals, many of whom wanted to continue the war.
73 b. Petrograd Soviet consisted of workers and soldiers who had overthrown the tsar (soldiers now controlled the army). Led by the Mensheviks The Soviet accepted the Provisional Gov t seeing it as the best chance for maintaining control of the country. The Soviet soon brought together representatives from other soviets and emerged as a national body. Popular pressure demanded more radical reforms.
74 2. Alexander Kerensky became leader of the Provisional Gov t (while remaining a member of the Soviet) a. Kerensky and other socialists in the new coalition gov t gave the Provisional Government more legitimacy. Gov t no longer an exclusively bourgeois institution Sought peace in the war without losing land to the Central Powers
75 b. Implemented liberal program Equality before the law Freedom of religion, speech, and assembly Right of unions to organize & strike Amnesty of political prisoners Election of local officials 8-hr work day c. Kerensky rejected outright social revolution. Didn't want to immediately confiscate large landholdings and give them to peasants
76 3. Army Order No. 1 (March 1917) a. Issued by the Petrograd Soviet seeking to replace military officers loyal to the tsar and place the Soviet in firm control of the army b. Stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers Soldiers feared that in the future they might be liable for treason against the tsar
77 c. Issued by the Petrograd Soviet seeking to replace military officers loyal to the tsar and place the Soviet in firm control of the army d. Stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers
78 4. Anarchy plagued Russia by summer of 1917 a. Numerous nationalities and local governments took matters into their own hands. b. Russian peasants (like what had occurred in France during the Great Fear of 1789) began to take lands from the lords, often violently. By 1920, the number of landless peasants had decreased by half.
79 V. The October Revolution A. Rise of Vladimir Lenin 1. Germany arranged for Lenin to be transported back to Russia in a sealed railroad car in April, Hoped to get Russia out of the war by fomenting a more radical revolution that demanded peace.
80 2. April Theses (1917) a. Lenin rejected all cooperation with the bourgeois provisional government. b. Called for a "Socialist revolution" and establishment of a Soviet republic c. Nationalization of banks and landed estates d. All Power to the Soviets ; All Land to the Peasants ; Stop the War Now
81 3. Lenin believed that a communist revolution could occur, even in an industrially backward country such as Russia. However, breaking with Marx, Lenin believed that a small professional revolutionary elite would have to force the issue.
82 4. The Provisional Gov t sought to repress the Bolsheviks but were largely ineffective. Lenin was forced to flee to Finland but continued issuing directives to the Bolsheviks while in exile. 5. The Bolsheviks gained a slim majority in the Petrograd Soviet by the summer of Lenin incognito in Finland in August, 1917.
83 B. Fall of the Provisional Government 1. Kornilov Affair (August 1917) a. Conservatives, including General Lavr Kornilov, plotted an overthrow of Kerensky s government. Dissatisfied with Kerensky s handling of the war, inability to suppress Bolsheviks, and peasant seizures of land. b. Plot eventually failed without bloodshed and Kornilov and others were arrested.
84 c. However, Kerensky lost all credit with the army. d. Fear of a right-wing counterrevolution played into the Bolsheviks hands as they were able to cast themselves as the defenders of the revolution. Alexander Kerensky: Minister-Chairman of the Provisional Government
85 C. Politburo formed to organize the revolution: included Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin D. November 7, Leon Trotsky, leader of the Petrograd Soviet (and the Red Army), led the Soviet overthrow and arrest of the provisional gov t. 1. Trotsky was the 2nd most important figure in the Bolshevik Revolution.
86 2. The Provisional Government collapsed with relatively little bloodshed (compared to the February Revolution).
87 3. November 8, the Bolsheviks, who controlled the Central Committee of the Congress of Soviets, officially took control of the government. Red Guards at the Vulkan Factory, 1917
88 E. Opponents of the Bolsheviks were arrested, including many Mensheviks 1. Cheka, the secret police, was created in December to eliminate opponents 2. New elections for the Constituent Assembly were held in January, 1918 a. Lenin s campaign: Peace, Land, Bread b. Bolsheviks lost (only 29% of vote) but overthrew the new gov't in January 1918 with the Red Army.
89 3. Bolsheviks soon thereafter were renamed the Communist Party 4. The surprising result of the revolution was not that the Bolsheviks took power but maintained power, even though they were a small minority
90 1. Decree on Land: Lenin gave land to peasants (although peasants already had taken it, much like the Great Fear of the French Revolution) This move was shrewd in that Lenin had no real control over lands in the countryside but was now perceived as a friend of the peasantry. 2. Lenin gave direct control of individual factories by local workers committees.
91 3. Decree on Peace: Lenin carried through on his promise to take Russia out of the war a. It was clear to Lenin that Russia had lost the war to Germany Prolonging the war would add to Russia s misery He sought peace at any price Many Bolsheviks disagreed initially but Russia s poor showing in early 1918 convinced them to end war
92 b. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 took Russia out of WWI Russia lost 1/3 of its population and 25% of its European lands Lost territories included the Baltic states, Poland, Ukraine and Finland Germany s defeat by the Allies in November nullified the treaty.
93 4. Lenin moved the gov t from Petrograd to Moscow 5. Trotsky reorganized the army 6. These actions resulted in much opposition to the Bolsheviks and ultimately, the Russian Civil War.
94 VI. The Russian Civil War: A. Reds (Bolsheviks) vs. Whites (included officers of old army, and 18 groups proclaiming themselves the real gov't of Russia had no leader to unify them) 1. Many peasants feared the Whites and thus supported the Reds. 2. Both sides proved to be extremely brutal. 3. Over 2 million people left Russia due to the revolution and the civil war.
95 B. Allied troops helped "Whites hoping to get Russia back in WWI 1. Archangel Expedition in Murmansk sought to keep military supplies from falling into German hands. 2. Allies also sent troops into Siberia to save thousands of marooned Czech troops, prevent Bolsheviks from gaining supplies, and prevent Japan from taking control of Siberia. 3. Russian communists never forgot they had been invaded by the U.S. and the Allies.
96 C. War Communism : Bolsheviks mobilized the home front for the civil war 1. Earliest form of socialism in Russia 2. Applied a "total war" concept to the civil war 3. Declared that all land was nationalized 4. State took control of heavy industries and ended private trade Resulted in huge decline in production
97 Either death to capitalism, or death under the heel of capitalism, 1919 Communist Propaganda Poster
98 5. Forced peasants to deliver food to towns 6. Cheka hunted down and executed thousands of opponents, such as the tsar and his family and other enemies of the proletariat
100 D. By 1921, the Reds were victorious. 1. Communists extremely well organized and highly disciplined Red Army prevailed under Trotsky s leadership 2. Whites were divided and poorly organized. 3. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was created in 1922.
101 E. Results of the Russian Revolution: 1. Costs: 15 million dead, economy ruined, international trade gone, millions of workers fled the country 2. Creation of world's first communist society: one of the monumental events of the 20th century
102 The Anatomy of Revolution: English Revolution Radicals take revolution to the extreme: Radical Revolution run by Moderates (Parliament: Puritans and Presbyterians) Old Regime Conservatives (Royalists) Conservative Independents (New Model Army) Levellers, Diggers Reign of Terror: Pride s Purge; Independents; Puritans in control; Presbyterians out Thermidor: Return of conservatives to power (Charles II)
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Russia Continued Competing Revolutions and the Birth of the USSR Review: 3 Main Causes of Russian Revolution of 1917 Peasant Poverty Farmers: indebted and barely above subsistence level Outdated agricultural
Chapter 30 Revolution and Nationalism 30-1 Russia Czarist Autocratic Rule Alexander III 1881-1894 Ruthless secret police Oppressed nationalist minorities Jewish pogroms Nicholas II 1894-1918 Industrializes
Document 1: Russia Before WWI Russia was an autocracy. The ruler Of Russia was the Tsar and technically everything that happened in Russia was his responsibility which he shared with no one and was responsible
1848-1914 *Agricultural Revolution Came First. 1. Great Britain led the Way 2. Migration from Rural to Urban (Poor Living Conditions) 3. Proletarianization of the Workforce (Poor Working Conditions) 4.
Nations in Upheaval: Europe 1850-1914 1914 The Rise of the Nation-State Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Modern Germany: The Role of Key Individuals Czarist Russia: Reform and Repression Britain 1867-1894 1894
Higher History Introduction We will be studying Later Modern History Britain 1851 1951 and Russia 1881 1921. This shall involve writing 2 essays, worth 20 marks each in the final exam. Therefore this shall
My revision planner 5 Introduction Part 1 Autocracy, reform and revolution: Russia, 1855 1917 (AS and A-level) 1 Trying to preserve autocracy, 1855 94 8 Political authority and the state of Russia 10 Political
GCE History A Unit : Y318/01 Russia and its Rulers 1855-1964 Advanced GCE Mark Scheme for June 2017 Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA) is a leading UK awarding body, providing
World Civilizations The Global Experience AP Seventh Edition Chapter 28 Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West Figure 28.1 Japanese children at school. Showing children the latest in naval
Part A TOTALITARIANISM  The author George Orwell wrote a book about a totalitarian society. the book was called 1984. In the book the people are controlled by a strict government that not only regulates
World history Factories double from 1863-1900 Trans-Siberian Railway finally finished in 1916 More and more people work in factories o Terrible conditions, child labor, very low pay o Unions were illegal
Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West EQs: How did industrialization efforts impact Japan and Russia and in what different ways? What are the parallels and differences in modernization in
1 Revolutions in Russia MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES REVOLUTION Long-term social unrest in Russia exploded in revolution, and ushered in the first Communist government. The Communist Party
5 Conservative Order Shaken in Europe Today s Objective - To understand further challenges to the Conservative Order in Europe in the 19 th Century Russia: The Decembrist Revolt (1825) Russian military
REVOLUTIONS CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION During the reign of Louis XIV. A political system known as the Old Regime Divided France into 3 social classes- Estates First Estate Catholic clergy own 10 percent
A Level History OCR History A H505 Unit Y318. Thematic Study and Interpretations Russia and its Rulers, 1855-1964 Booklet 1: The Nature of Russian Government 0 Journey Through Russia and its Rulers, 1855-1964
the right to vote Ch. 6.3 Radical Period of the French Revolution leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror period from September 1793 to July 1794 when those who
Unit 8 SG 2 Name Date I. The Russian Empire A. The Russian Empire traces its roots back to the principality of Muscovy, which began to expand in the 1400s. B. Ivan III (the Great) married Zoe Palaeologus,
The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789 1815 Why was it so hard for the French to establish a republic than it was for the Americans? How was Napoleon able to take power twice? The French Revolution and
The Russian Revolution Bennifield 1 Bennifield 2 STANDARD The student will explain conflict and change in Europe to the 21 st century. Bennifield 3 Essential Question How did the Russian Revolution contribute
21H.912 Week 11 Russia & Backwardness Key Terms: Useful Dates & Names: backwardness 1825: Decembrist Revolt mir 1854-56: Crimean War emancipation of the serfs 1861 Nicholas I (r. 1825-55) Slavophiles v.
Name Date Period With a partner, brainstorm three questions you could ask the class that would help them understand the important details of the image, what is happening, and its connection to the Russian
1 French Revolution I. 3 estates A. 1 st estate 1. Clergy 5-10% of the land B. 2 nd estate 1. Nobles 25% of the land C. 3 rd estate 1. Peasants 40-60% of the land 2. Artisans 3. Bourgeoisie (Middle Class)
The French Revolution Absolutism monarchs didn t share power with a counsel or parliament-- The Seigneurial System method of land ownership and organization Peasant labor Louis XIV Ruled from 1643 1715
Chapters 30 and 31: The Interwar Period (1919-1938) Postwar Germany Unstable democracies Weimar Republic in Germany Democratic government formed after WWI Was blamed for signing Treaty of Versailles Cost
Induction work- helping you to understand the basis of AS History- using evidence to create, support and develop an argument. This work needs to be completed for the first lesson you have in September.
World Civilizations The Global Experience AP Seventh Edition Chapter 21 The Rise of Russia Figure 21.1 Early Russian tsar Ivan V, 1682 1696. Ivan was actually sickly and ineffective and soon gave way to
SOC 30-1 Readings: Chapter 5 parts on Russia SOC 30-2 Readings: Chapter 7, pg. 161-172 Nature of Totalitarian (Dictatorship) Regimes: Totalitarian regimes are responding to what they see as dangerous and
Unit 11: Age of Nationalism, 1850-1914 Garibaldi in Naples Learning Objectives Explain why nationalism became an almost universal faith in Europe. Describe the unifications of both Germany and Italy-in
SLIDE 1 Chapter 23 The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789 1815 The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance
Chapter 2 SOCIALISM IN EUROPE AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Q1) What were the view points of the liberals? i) Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. Liberals also opposed the uncontrolled