DP1 History Revision for Winter Break

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1 What will be on the exam? DP1 History Revision for Winter Break World War One: European Diplomacy and the First World War (only go up until 1918 for now) European Diplomacy & the First World War, o European diplomacy & the changing balance of power after 1870; o Goals & methods, continuity & change in German foreign policy until 1914; Germany s place in the sun, naval contest with England, efforts to thwart an Anglo- French entente, global colonial rivalry; o Relative importance of: alliance system; decline of Ottoman Empire; Austria- Hungary & Balkan nationalism; arms race; international & diplomatic crises; o Effects on civilian population; social & political impact of war on women; o Factors leading to the defeat of Germany & the other Central Powers (Austria- Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria); strategic errors; economic factors; rise of socialism; departure of Russia; entry of United States; o Post- war Peace Treaties & their territorial, political & economic effects on Europe: Versailles (St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres/Lausanne). Not on exam at midterm Past Questions 1. Why and with what results did relations between Britain and Germany deteriorate between 1890 and 1914? 2. Of all the factors that led to the outbreak of World War One in 1914, imperialism was by far the most important. How far do you agree with this statement? 3. Why, how and with what results did conflicting interests in Africa cause tensions between Europe states between 1880 and 1914? 4. In what ways was nationalism a force for disruption between 1870 and 1914?

2 5. How did events in the Balkans cause disruption in Europe between 1878 and 1914? 6. Assess the relative importance of long and short term causes of the First World War. 7. Analyse the main issues that caused tensions among European nations at the end of the 19 th century. 8. Evaluate the relative importance of imperialism, the arms race and the failure of diplomacy in causing the First World War. 9. Why were diplomatic efforts unable to prevent the outbreak of war in 1914? Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State, (only up until 4 th bullet point for exam) o The nature of Tsarism & the Russia of Nicholas Ià Crimean War of 1854 o Alexander II ( ): the tsar liberator, the emancipation of serfs; military, judicial, educational & local governmental reforms; his later reactions and indecisiveness: autocracy & reform in conflict & promises of a constitution & parliament; growth of socialism, anarchism, Marxism; assassination; o Alexander III ( ) & Nicholas II ( ): reaction & Russification; backwardness & attempts at reform; growth of opposition movements; o Significance of Russo- Japanese War (1904-5); 1905 Revolution; Stolypin s duma, reforms & assassination; impact of the Great War; Rasputin & the nobles; abdication and the end of the autocracy; o 1917 Revolutions: February/March Revolution; Provisional Government and dual powerà the Petrograd Soviet; October/November (Bolshevik) Revolution; Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kaminev & Stalin; o Lenin s Russia ( ): consolidation of the new Soviet state; Brest- Litovsk; Civil War; War Communism; NEP & the deaf- mutes ; Red Terror & coercion; foreign relations; stroke, isolation,

3 loss of power, his testament & Stalin s emergence. These sections will not be on the midterm. Some past paper questions: 1. Assess how successfully the Tsarist government dealt with the needs and demands of the Russian people between 1881 and Why did the Tsarist regime survive the 1905 revolution, but perish in the 1917 revolutions? 3. Compare and contrast the causes of the 1905 and February/March 1917 revolutions in Russia. 4. With what justification can it be said that the First World War affected the timing of the 1917 Russian Revolutions but not their outcome? 5. Account for the failure of Russian Liberals after 1905 and the success of Lenin from Account for the survival of Nicholas II in 1905 and his overthrow in Why was the Tsarist regime in Russia overthrown in 1917 and not in 1905? 8. Why were there two revolutions in Russia 1917? Explain why the first could be considered a failure and the second a success. 9. Account for the failure of the Provisional Government in Russia to retain power in To what extent were Stolypin s political and economic policies successful in the years ? 11. In what ways and with what success did Alexander II attempt to modernize Russia and preserver imperial power? Reading Lists: Please note that you DO NOT need to read all of these but should choose those that you enjoy reading and understand. It is good to understand various perspectives of Historians for the best essays. European Diplomacy and the First World War Reading List European diplomacy and the changing balance of power after Alan Farmer Modern European History pages Rogers and Thomas History 20 th Century World pages Alan Farmer The Unification of Germany pages

4 4. Morris and Murphy Europe pages John Traynor Europe pages 2-94 Aims, methods, continuity and change in German foreign policy to 1914; global colonial rivalry 1. Alan Farmer The Unification of Germany pages Rogers and Thomas History 20 th Century World pages Morris and Murphy Europe pages John Traynor Europe pages Oxford Course Companion 20 th Century World History pages Relative importance of: the Alliance System; decline of the Ottoman Empire; Austria Hungary and Balkan nationalism; arms race; international and diplomatic crises 1. Morris and Murphy Europe pages Rogers and Thomas History 20 th Century World pages John Traynor Europe pages Alan Farmer Modern European History pages (especially 61-64) 5. Oxford Course Companion 20 th Century World History pages Effects on civilian population; impact of war on women socially and politically 1. Morris and Murphy Europe pages , Rogers and Thomas History 20 th Century World pages John Traynor Europe pages Factors leading to the defeat of Germany and the other Central Powers (Austria Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria); strategic errors; economic factors; the entry and role of the United States 1. Morris and Murphy Europe pages (especially ) 2. Rogers and Thomas History 20 th Century World pages Alan Farmer Modern European History pages (especially 89-94) Post-war peace treaties and their territorial, political and economic effects on Europe: Versailles (St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sèvres/Lausanne) 1. Oxford Course Companion 20 th Century World History pages John Traynor Europe pages Alan Farmer Modern European History pages Morris and Murphy Europe pages Rogers and Thomas History 20 th Century World pages Reading Guide: Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State Alexander II ( ): emancipation of the serfs; military, legal, educational, local government reforms; later reaction 1. Russell Sherman Russia pages (pages are worthwhile in understanding background on Nicholas I, however this can be skipped if time is an issue) 2. Sally Waller Tsarist Russia, pages Terry Morris & Derrick Murphy Europe pages 40-61

5 Policies of Alexander III ( ) and Nicholas II ( ): backwardness and attempts at modernization; nature of tsardom; growth of opposition movements 1. Sally Waller Tsarist Russia, pages and Terry Morris & Derrick Murphy Europe pages and Significance of the Russo-Japanese War; 1905 Revolution; Stolypin and the Duma; the impact of the First World War ( ) on Russia 1. Sally Waller Tsarist Russia, pages and Terry Morris & Derrick Murphy Europe pages and Revolutions: February/March Revolution; Provisional Government and Dual Power (Soviets); October/November Bolshevik Revolution; Lenin and Trotsky 1. Sally Waller Tsarist Russia, pages Terry Morris & Derrick Murphy Europe pages Chris Corin and Terry Fiehn Communist Russia under Lenin and Stalin pages Lenin s Russia ( ): consolidation of new Soviet state; Civil War; War Communism; NEP; terror and coercion; foreign relations 1. Terry Morris & Derrick Murphy Europe pages Alan Farmer Modern European History pages Chris Corin and Terry Fiehn Communist Russia under Lenin and Stalin pages Further thematic general reading: Allan Todd Revolutions pages: 15-17, 28-30, 39-41, 54-57, 64-68, 77-80, 90-93, (these sections are especially relevant to Lenin s Russia

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