Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin) Pipes Chapter 4

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1 Topic 3: The Rise and Rule of Single-Party States (USSR and Lenin/Stalin) Pipes Chapter 4 Major Theme: Origins and Nature of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Conditions That Produced Single-Party States Emergence of Leaders: Aims, Ideology, Support Economic conditions inspire rebellion and anger in the people: The winter of is very cold, which means that delivery of food and fuel is delayed, causing shortages. Fuel shortages close factories, leaving thousands of workers without a job. When the temperatures heat up, people go outside and there is a demonstration feb 23. Znamenskii square is the spark that leads to anarchy and the destruction of the government. After the Duma and the Soviet take over, the tsar has no control. Then the duality of the government made it very weak, because they had different objectives and no power to assemble the National Assembly, which led to unhappy people and made Bolshevik overthrow of a disorganized and weak government easy. The fact that the government also destroyed all systems of administration and then did not institute new ones made it powerless. In an effort for a truly democratic government, they failed to represent 80% of the population, and give themselves any real control. There was a focus on breaking down the old regime, but not building a new one. Alexander Shliapnikov: Leading Bolshevik in Petrograd. Will be the first Soviet Commissar of Labor. Says that the revolution is based off of hunger and shortages. It will not last. Prince G. E. Lvov: Provisional government chair. Civic activist, who could represent the society. Head of Zemstva and Zamgor. Thought that policy decisions should be made by citizens, since it effects them most. Did not give

2 Totalitarianism: the Aim and the Extent to Which it was Achieved provincial delegations any instruction. Very passive. Miliukov: Minister of foreign affairs in new government. Leader of the constitutional-democratic party. He did not have good political intuition. Clings to bad political decisions. Cold and calculating. Wanted to retain the monarchy in a purely ceremonial capacity. Kerensky: New Minister of Justice. Leading radical orator in the Duma. Brilliant speaker, with no political philosophy. Ispolkom says he can't accept position in Duma, so he gives a speech to the crowds. Pledges never to betray democratic ideals. the moment you come to doubt me, kill me Supported by workers and soldiers. The February Revolution was initially a soldier mutiny, with no organization or leaders. It is stunning how quickly Russia fell apart. Revolution isn't the right word to describe what happened. The monarchy disappeared, and everything just completely collapsed. Major Theme: Establishment of Authoritarian and Single-Party States Methods: Force 200,000 unemployed workers are out on the street feb 24, so Nicholas sends a telegram saying to end the demonstration by force. Feb 26, troops occupy Petrograd. Znamenskii square: Pavlockii guards fire on a crowd that refused to go away, killing 40 civilians. The spark that started the revolution. Troops of Pavlovskii regiment agree to disobey orders to fire on civilians. By February 27, three of the regiments in Petrograd are in mutiny. Officers killed, policeman lynched, arsenals broken into, 80,000 (half of total) troops in full mutiny. Nicholas plans to squash them by force, but calls off operation. Methods: Legal Form of Government, (Left & Right Wing) Ideology

3 Nature, Extent and Treatment of Opposition Extremely disorganized in the beginning. Remains without a common goal, so they don't accomplish anything other than tearing down the old regime. Nicholas is basically clueless about how out of control the governmental situation is at home the entire time. There is a point, after the provisional government is established, where what he does doesn't really matter anymore. His abdication doesn't really matter when it happens. Major Theme: Domestic Policies and Impact Structure and Organization of Government and Administration The Duma forms The Provisional Committee of Duma Members for the Restoration of Order in the Capital and the Establishment of Relations with Individuals and Institutions: Too scared to openly disobey Tsar in not disbanding. This committee is an executive bureau of 12 Duma members. Now the de facto government. The Petrograd Soviet: formed on the same day (feb 28) by the Mensheviks and the Central Workers' Group. Made up of representatives of factories and military units. No agendas or voting procedures. Ispolkom (soviet executive committee): Made up of nominees of socialist parties. Socialist body of Socialist party superimposed on the Soviet. dual power (dvoevastie) government: Provisional Duma is technically in charge, but Ispolkom performs both legislative and executive functions. Very flawed, because each has a separate objective. Duma decides they need to legitimize rule, so they turn to the Soviet. Form official provisional government with the Soviet. Contact Commission: set up by Ispolkom so nothing happens without their permission. Composed of 5 socialist intellectuals. Appoints commissars to the the Ministry of War and headquarters. All Russian Soviet of Wokers' and Soldiers'

4 Political Policies Economic Policies Deputies: the new name for the Petrograd Soviet once it expanded to serve all of Russia and not just the capital city. All- Russian Central Executive Comittee (CEC): The new Ispolkom that applies to all of Russia. Posed as spokesman of the masses, but does not represent 80% of the population. Division between the Duma and the Soviet because the Duma (provisional government) wants to contain the revolution and the Soviet wants to deepen it. Principal clauses of provisional government: established in meeting to ensure Soviet support of the Duma. Amnesty for all political prisoners, preparations for a constituent assembly elected by universal ballot, dismissal of all police, no continuation of war, new elections for self government. Order no. 1: Ispolkom/Soviet defies the government by issuing it. Basically takes the control of the army away from the government and giving the Soviets true control. Completely disorganizes troops by taking officer control of troops away. Abdication: Nicholas is prepared to abdicate, but then when he learns his son Alexis will not live, makes an impulsive decision to give the crown to his brother Michael, who declines it. Massive deal because the tsar is a personification of statehood, and the state vanishes without a tsar. New Government: thinks of politics as legislation instead of administration. No leadership experience. Extreme political Laissez-faire. Dismiss all the governors on March 5. Destroy the entire administrative system. Soviet in charge of day to day events, while the Ispolkom oversees everything. When rural populations hear about tsar abdication they raid the land estates, cut down trees, steal seed grain. Government promises land reform decree that never

5 Social Policies Religious Policies Role of Education Role of the Arts Role of Media, Propaganda Status of Women Treatment of Religious Groups and Minorities comes. Replaces police function with citizen militias commanded by elected officers and reporting to zemstva and municipal councils. Ispolkom institutes an 8 hour work day in all fields. The Ispolkom being made up of socialists as the decisionmaking wing of the Soviet expanded the representation of the Bolsheviks, even though the soldiers and workers do not really support it. It also strengthened the moderate socialists and bureaucratized the Ispolkom- decisions really made by intellectual socialists. In the initial clauses of the provisional government, they were really dumb because they ensured administrative anarchy by stripping away provincial bureaucracy. Removal of police dissolves any enforcing of authority by the government. Nicholas abdicated for patriotic motives, because generals told him he had to to keep Russia in the war and on the path to victory. The CEC and new Russian government, which claimed to represent the masses, but didn't at all. Peasantry and bourgeoisie not represented. The delay and inability of the CEC and new government to deal with organization and institute a true representative and effective system leads to the ease of government overthrow, because Bolsheviks can claim the government never formed the national assembly. Russians didn't know what to do with their new tsar-free state. They were rather stunned.

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