(Trotsky, Tolstoy, Gorky) 15. A group of thinkers in Russia called... stood for absolute individualism.

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1 6 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Q.1. (A) Complete the following statements by choosing appropriate alternatives from those given in the brackets : *1. Karl Marx was a... Philosopher. (Russian, German, Polish) *2. Karl Marx and... published the famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto. (Pushkin, Fredrick Engels, Maxim Gorky) *3. In February 1917, a workers strike started in... (Leningrad, Petrograd, Moscow) 4. Russia was ruled by... dynasty for over three centuries. (Romanov, Bourbon, Hanoverian) 5. The provisional Government in Russia was led by... (Kerensky, Lenin, Trotsky) 6. Lenin s policies are collectively termed as... (War Communism, NEP, Collective farming) 7. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne on... (15th March 1917, 27th November 1917, 7th November 1917) 8. The... experiment failed in Russia (Monarchial, militaristic, Democratic) 9. A number of workers led by Father Gapen tried to March to the royal palace in... (Moscow, Petrograd, St. Petersberg) 10. The... Duma was the longest Duma in Russia. (first, second, third) 11. The... clamoured for more land in Russia. (workers, farmers, soldiers) 12. Russia was defeated by small Asian country... (Japan, Myanmar, Malaya) 13. Leaders like... were exiled by Russian government. (Lenin, Trotsky, Kerensky) 14. Lenin with the help of... and others like minded leaders began to reorganize the Soviets activities. (Trotsky, Tolstoy, Gorky) 15. A group of thinkers in Russia called... stood for absolute individualism. (Nihilists, extremists, revolutionaries) was a novel feature of first Five Year Plan of Stalin. (Industrialistion, collective farming, capitalism) 17. The concept of... also has gained currency all over the world. (Welfare state, Industrialisation, Capitalism) 18. The philosophy of... found its first concrete shape in the Russian Revolution of (democracy, communism, capitalism) 36

2 MT EDUCARE LTD. HISTORY (B) Match the following : *I A Group B Group 1. Nihilists (a) Menshevik leader. 2. Dostoyevsky (b) Stood for absolute individualism. 3. Father Gapen (c) Bolshevik leader. 4. Kerensky (d) Writer and thinker. (e) March to the royal Palace in St.Petersberg. Ans. (1 - b), (2 - d), (3 - e), (4 - a) II A Group B Group 1. Lenin (a) headed provisional government 2. Stalin (b) was exiled from Russia 3. Kerensky (c) Man of action 4. Karl Marx (d) Communist Manifesto Ans. (1 - b), ( 2 - c), (3 - a), (4 - d) III A Group B Group 1. Rasputin (a) Romanov dynasty 2. Nicholas II (b) Imposter 3. Trotsky (c) Helped Lenin to organise Soviets 4. Stalin activities (d) Collective farming Ans. (1 - b), ( 2 - a), (3 - c), (4 - d) IV A Group B Group 1. Trotsky (a) Menshevik leader 2. Leo Tolstoy (b) Bolshevik leader 3. Father Gapon (c) Writer and thinker 4. Kerensky (d) March to the royal palace at St. Petersberg Ans. (1 - b), ( 2 - c), (3 - d), (4 - a) Q.2 Answer each of the following questions in 20 to 25 words. *1. Explain the principle of the communist philosophy. (March 09) Ans. 1) Karl Marx along with Fredrick Engels published the famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto in ) The communist philosophy was opposed to inequality and exploitation. It assumes that, at a given time there are two classes in the society the haves and the have-nots. 3) The former class monopolises all means of production, while the members of the latter class have none at all. This latter class mainly consists of workers and peasants. Karl Marx calls them as the Proletariate. 4) The struggle between these two classes ultimately leads to the capture of power by the Proletariate. 37

3 HISTORY MT EDUCARE LTD. *2. Whom did Karl Marx call as the proletariate? Why? Ans. 1) Karl Marx along with Fredrick Engels published the famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto in ) The communist Philosophy was opposed to inequality and exploitation. It assumes that, at a given time there are two classes in the society the haves and the have-nots. 3) The former class monopolises all means of production, while the members of the latter class have none at all. This latter class mainly consists of workers and peasants. Karl Marx calls them as the Proletariate. 4) The struggle between these two classes ultimately leads to the capture of power by the Proletariate. *3. Why did the Nihilists flee from the country? Ans. 1) A group of thinkers in Russia called the Nihilists stood for absolute individualism. 2) All social institutions such as government, religion, marriage, ethics etc. were the targets of Nihilist criticism. 3) They naturally incurred the wrath of the authorities. 4) So many of the Nihilist either fled the country or began to work secretly. *4. Why did the rule of Tsar prove autocratic? Ans. 1) The emperors or the Tsars as they were called in Russia, were autocratic. 2) They generally followed an imperialist policy. 3) The Tsars from time to time, naturally depended on their nobels and the militia, for supporting their imperialistic objectives. 4) Being despotic in nature, the Tsars were always averse to encourage liberal ideas. Popular demand for freedom of expression and for a share in the state administration was promptly put down. *5. Which thinkers were responsible for the awakening in Russia? Ans. 1) The thinkers responsible for awakening in Russia were Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Pushkin, Maxim Gorky and Lenin. 2) These intellectuals became the strong critics of all kinds of restrictions imposed on the people by the Tsar. 3) Their writings were marked by liberalism and humanism. 4) These very ideals invited the displeasure of the Tsarist regine. *6. Why did Nihilists become strong critics of the society in Russia? Ans. 1) The Russian Emperors or Tsar were autocratic in nature. 2) Popular demand for freedom of expression and a share in state administration was promptly put down. 3) These reactionary policies of the Tsarist regime led to feeling of bitterness in society. 4) As the Nihilists stood for absolute individualism they became strong critics of society in Russia. 38

4 MT EDUCARE LTD. HISTORY Q.3 Give reasons for the following statement in 20 to 25 words each. *1. The Russian Revolution presents a struggle between the Russian monarch and the worker and the peasants. Ans. The Russian Revolution presents a struggle between the Russian monarch and the workers and the peasants. 1) The autocratic Tsars generally followed an imperialist policy and were averse to encourage liberal ideas. Popular demands for freedom of expression and for a share in the state administration was promptly put down. 2) Agriculture was backbone of the Russian economy which was in bad shape. The peasants clamoured for more lands, but the Tsar neglected. 3) The industrial workers in Russia suffered from evils such as inadequate wages, long hours of work, insecurity and low standards of living. 4) This simmering discontent led to a worker s strike in Petrograd in February 1917 and established a popular government of representatives of workers and peasants in November *2. Leaders like Lenin were exiled by the Russian government. (Sept. 10) Ans. 1) Leaders like Lenin criticised the reactionary policies of the Tsarist regime. 2) Their writings were marked by liberalism and humanism. 3) These very ideals invited the displeasure of the Tsarist regime. 4) As the Tsarist regime was intolerant to criticism, leaders like Lenin were exiled. *3. Workers unions came together to form the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. Ans. 1) Industrial workers in Russia suffered from evils such as inadequate wages, long hours of work, insecurity and low standards of living. 2) The organised efforts of the workers to get their conditions improved always met with opposition by the Tsarist regime. 3) Worker s union therefore worked secretly. 4) Such unions came together to form the Russian Social Democratic Labour party in *4. The democratic experiment in Russia failed. Ans. 1) A persistant demand for a democratic administration finally led to formation of Duma (Russian parliament). 2) The opening session of the first Duma was held on 10th of May The first Duma lasted hardly for 2 months and nothing significant came out of it. 3) The second Duma also met a similar fate. 4) The third and longest Duma ( ) too could not achieve anything substantial. So the democratic experiment in Russia failed. 39

5 HISTORY MT EDUCARE LTD. Q.4 Answer each of the following questions in 30 to 40 words. *1. Why is 22nd January 1905 known the Bloody Sunday? (March 10) Ans. 1) A number of workers led by Father Gapon tried to march to the royal palace in St.Petersberg on 22nd January, ) They wanted to place their grievances before emperor. 3) However, the Tsar s soldiers attacked them. 4) There was a bloodshed. 5) This event took place on Sunday the 22nd January, So it is known as the Bloody Sunday. 6) Similar disturbances became common feature throughout the country. *2. Why did Bolsheviks declare that the provisional government led by Kerensky had been overthrown? Ans. 1) Kerensky s government was not acceptable to Russian masses. 2) Russian workers formed their own Soviets and started agitation against the new government. 3) The Bolshevik leader, Lenin returned from his exile in Switzerland and used the opportunity. 4) He began to reorganize the Soviets activities with the help of like minded leaders like Trotsky. 5) A struggle ensued between the two factions of the socialists viz. Mensheviks (moderates) under Kerensky and Bolsheviks (extremists) under Lenin. 6) On 7th November, 1917, Lenin declared that provisional government led by Kerensky had been overthrown. *3. Write a short note about the programme of Bolsheviks. Ans. 1) The programme of the Bolsheviks was as follows :- a) To end the war and make immediate peace. b) Confiscation of landed estates and giving power to the Soviets 2) The Bolsheviks overthrew Kerensky s provisional government. 3) Lenin gave a Slogan Bread for breadless, land for landless and peace for all. 4) The Bolshevik government signed an armistice with Germany. 5) The work of national reconstruction was taken up in right earnest. *4. How did the rise of Stalin take place in Russian Revolution? Ans. 1) Lenin died in January Joseph Stalin was Lenin s early follower. 2) He became the supreme leader of the communist party. 3) He was a man of action rather than a theorist. 4) He realised that the prospects of world communism were fading so he tried to perpetuate socialism at least in one country (i.e in Russia) with great determination and ruthlessness. 5) Collective farming was a novel feature of his first Five Year Plan. 6) He used coercive method and millions of peasants were forced into Collective farming. In this way Stalin rose to power and strengthened Russia at the cost of liberty of the people. 40

6 MT EDUCARE LTD. HISTORY Q.5 Answer each of the following questions in 80 to 100 words. *1. Give the causes of Russian Revolution. (Sept. 09) Ans The communist philosophy of Karl Marx found its concrete shape in the Russian Revolution of It was a struggle between the Russian emperor (Tsar) and his supporters on one side and the poor Russian workers and peasants on the other. Following were the main causes of Russian Revolution : (1) The Despotic rule in Russia : i) Russia was ruled by the Romanov dynasty for over three centuries. ii) The Emperor or the Tsars as they were called in Russia, were autocratic and followed an imperialist policy. iii) Being despotic in nature the Tsars were averse to encourage liberal ideas. iv) Popular demand for freedom of expression and for a share in the state administration was promptly put down. (2) The Rasputin factor : i) Tsar Nicholas II was inefficient. The Tsarina (queen) had full ii) control on him. Tsarina was under the spell of Rasputin, an impostor and a corrupt man. iii) All important appointments were subject to his approval which created anarchy in administration. (3) Nihilists and other intellectuals : i) A group of thinkers called Nihilists in Russia stood for absolute individualism. All social institutions such as government, religion, marriage ethics etc. were the targets of the Nihilist criticism. ii) Thinkers like Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Pushkin and Maxim Gorky upheld liberalism and humanism in their writings. (4) The condition of workers and other social classes : i) Agriculture was the backbone of Russian economy but was in a bad shape. The peasants clamoured for more land. ii) Industrial workers suffered from evils such as inadequate wages, long hours of work, insecurity and low standard of living. iii) Russian soldiers were unhappy due to unsatisfactory working iv) conditions and corruption in military. The Jews, the Poles, the Finns and other minority communities in Russia were agitated with the Tsarist regime. (5) Military setbacks : i) Russia was defeated by a small Asian nation Japan in the Russo- Japanese war of ii) This defeat was considered as a national insult by the Russians. iii) Defeat of Russian armies on the eastern front during the first Wolrd War also proved to be significant from the point of view of the Russian Revolution. 41

7 HISTORY MT EDUCARE LTD. (6) The Bloody Sunday : i) A number of workers led by Father Gapen tried to march to the royal palace in St.Petersberg. ii) They wanted to place their grievances before the emperor (Tsar). iii) However the Tsar s soldiers attacked them and there was a bloodshed. iv) This event took place on Sunday, the 22 nd January, Thus increasing discontent among the Russian masses against the age old dynasty led to outbreak of a historical revolution in Russia. *2. Give an account of the first and the second phase of Russian Revolution. Ans. The Russian Revolution was a struggle between the Russian emperor (Tsar) and his supporters on one side and the poor peasants and workers on the other. With the failure of democratic experiment in Russia began the historical Revolution. (1) First phase of Revolution : i) The worker s strike in Petrograd was supported by the Tsarist soldiers. ii) This was a clear warning to the Tsar to give up resistance. iii) He abdicated the throne on 15 th March This led to the formation of a provisional government headed by Menshevik leader Kerensky. This government comprised of land owners, capitalists, manufacturing and professional classes. iv) Kersensky s government continued war against Germany and suffered heavy defeat. v) The Russian masses found Kerensky s government unacceptable. Workers formed their own Soviets on the model of Petrograd and started agitation against the new government. (2) Second phase of Revolution : i) In April 1917 the Bolshevik leader Lenin made his way from exile in Switzerland to Russia. Lenin s return was facilitated by the co-operation of the Germans so as to promote confusion and ii) disorder in Russia. Lenin, with the help of Trotsky and the other like minded leaders began to reorganize the activities of the Soviets on his arrival in Russia. iii) This led to struggle between the Menshevik (moderates) led by Kerensky and the Bolsheviks (communist) or the extremists led by Lenin. iv) The Bolsheviks declared, on 7th November1917, that the provisional government led by Kerensky had been overthrown. v) The Bolshevik government then signed an armistice with Germany and took up the work of national reconstruction. Thus the Russian revolution was significant. *3. What was the contribution of the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks to the Russian revolution? Ans The Mensheviks (moderates) and the Bolsheviks (extremists) both played on important role in Russian revolution of

8 MT EDUCARE LTD. HISTORY (1) Contribution of Mensheviks : i) Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne on 15th March 1917 and a provisional government of the moderates under the leadership of Kerensky was formed. ii) This government consisted of landowners, capitalists, manufacturing and professional classes. iii) This government continued the war against Germany but heavily iv) suffered at the hands of the enemy The Menshevik government was unacceptable to the common people of Russia v) Workers all over the country formed their own Soviets on the model of Petrograd and started agitation against the new government. (2) Contribution of the Bolsheviks : i) The Bolshevik leader Lenin returned from exile in Switzerland to Russia in ii) He began to reorganize the activities of the Soviets with the help of Trotsky and other like minded leaders. iii) The Bolsheviks overthrew the unpopular Kerensky s government on 7th November, iv) The programme of the Bolsheviks was to end war, confiscation of landed estates and giving power to the Soviets. v) Lenin gave a Slogan, Bread for breadless, land for landless and vi) peace for all. The Bolshevik government signed an armistice with Germany. The work of national reconstruction was taken up in right earnest. Thus the contribution of Bolshevik was greater as compared to that of the Mensheviks. *4. What was the contribution of Lenin to Russian Revolution? (Sept. 08) Ans Lenin, the Bolshevik leader contributed greatly to Russian revolution. 1) On his return from exile, he began to reorganize the activities of the Soviets with the help of Trotsky and other like minded leaders. 2) With the support of Trotsky and like minded people he overthrew Kerensky s government in ) He signed an armistice with Germany 4) He gave a slogan, a Bread for breadless, land for landless and peace for all 5) He strove hard to raise the standard of living, to bring prosperity and to establish social equality in Russia. 6) His government nationalised all means of production in order to quicken the pace of industrialization. 7) He introduced War Communism which had features like state control over Labour, state distribution of goods and moving away from money economy. 8) Later on, he launched the New Economic Policy (NEP) which was a partial return to market and monetary economy. It was a temporary compromise between capitalism and communism 43

9 HISTORY MT EDUCARE LTD. Thus, Lenin dominated the second phase of Russian revolution. His death in January 1924 paved the way for Stalin to become the Supreme leader of the communist Party. *5. What was the significance of the Russian Revolution? (March 08) Ans The Russian revolution was significant on many counts. (1) Model of communist revolution : i) The philosophy of Karl Marx found its concrete form in Russian Revolution. ii) It was the first communist revolution. iii) It was responsible for the improvement of the conditions of workers all over the world. (2) Aims of the revolution : i) The Russian revolution aimed at raising the standard of living, bringing about prosperity and establishing social equality. ii) Lenin strove hard to bring these ideals into reality. (3) Birth of new concepts : i) The concept of planned economic development is the gift of Russian revolution. It proved to be a blessing for many countries who became free from colonial power. ii) The concept of welfare state gained popularity all over the world. iii) Emancipation of man from all kinds of bondage is the most important message of the Russian revolution. Thus, the Russian revolution influenced many countries of the world. 44

10 S.S.C. Marks : 20 HISTORY CHAPTER 6 : RUSSIAN REVOLUTION SET - A Duration : 1 hr. Q.1. Complete the following statement by choosing appropriate alternatives from those given in the brackets : 1. In February 1917, a workers, strike started in.... (Leningrad, Petrograd, Moscow) 2. The... experiment failed in Russia. (Monarchial, militaristic, Democratic) 2 Q.2. Match the following : 'A' Group 'B' Group 1. Lenin (a) headed provisionalgovernment 2. Stalin (b) was exiled from Russia 3. Kerensky (c) Man of action (d) Communist Manifesto 3 Q.3. Answer each of the following questions in 20 to 25 words : (Any 2) 1. Explain the principle of the communist philosophy? 2. Why did the Nihilists flee from the country? 3. Why did the rule of Tsar prove autocratic? 4 Q.4. Give reasons for the following statements in 20 to 30 words : (Any 2) 1. The Russian Revolution presents a struggle between the Russian monarch and the workers and the peasants. 2. Workers unions came together to form the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. 3. The democratic experiment in Russia failed. 4

11 Q.5. Answer each of the following questions in 30 to 40 words: (Any 1) 1. Why did Bolsheviks declare that the provisional government led by Kerensky had been overthrown? 2. Write a short note about the programme of Bolsheviks. 3 Q.6. Answer each of the following questions in 80 to 100 words : (Any 1) 1. Give the causes of Russian Revolution. 2. Give an account of the first and the second phase of Russian Revolution. 4 Best Of Luck

12 S.S.C. Marks : 20 HISTORY CHAPTER 6 : RUSSIAN REVOLUTION SET - B Duration : 1 hr. Q.1. Complete the following statement by choosing appropriate alternatives from those given in the brackets : 1. Russia was ruled by... dynasty for over three centuries. (Romanov, Bourbon, Hanoverian) 2. Russia was defeated by small Asian country.... (Malaya, Myanmar, Japan) 2 Q.2. Match the following : 'A' Group 'B' Group 1. Nihilists (a) Stood for absolute individualism 2. Dostoyevsky (b) Bolshevik leader 3. Father Gapen (c) Writer and thinker (d) March to the royal Palace in St.Petersburg 3 Q.3. Answer each of the following questions in 20 to 25 words : (Any 2) 1. Why did Nihilists became strong critics of the Society of Russia? 2. Who were proletariate? Who and why were they called so? 3. Explain the Rasputin factor? 4 Q.4. Give reasons for the following statements in 20 to 30 words : (Any 2) 1. Duma failed in Russia. 2. Soldiers & farmers were not happy in Russia. 3. Military setbacks were a major cause of the Russian Revolution. 4

13 Q.5. Answer each of the following questions in 30 to 40 words: (Any 1) 1. Write Lenin's contribution to Russia. 2. How did the people suffer under despotic rule of Czar? 3 Q.6. Answer each of the following questions in 80 to 100 words : (Any 1) 1. What was the contribution of the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks to the Russian Revolution? 2. What was Stalin's contribution to Russia? 4 Best Of Luck

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