From Lenin to Stalin: Part II. Building a Communist State in Russia

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1 From Lenin to Stalin: Part II Building a Communist State in Russia

2 DEFINITION: a classless, moneyless, stateless society based on common ownership of the means of production. Why were Russians ready to revolt?

3 Goals of Lenin The goal was to build a CLASSLESS society in which the means of PRODUCTION were in the hands of the Russian people Once the Civil War was over, Lenin could now focus on rebuilding the nation Lenin was gone for 17 years

4 Civil War: 3 year war It was between the Reds: Communists versus the Whites: Tsarist imperial officers. Counter Revolutionaries shot the Tsar And the Tsarina. (Whites July 1918) Allies intervened to help the Whites. Why? Lack of unified front killed it Reds appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out foreigners. Lenin killed 30,000

5 Results of World War I + Communism Economy nearly collapsed Factory and mine output fallen Peasants stopped producing because they knew it would all go to the government 10 million die in the Revolution/ 3 million from Civil war / 2 million from disease / 5 million from lack of seeds to plant for the next season= 15 million Many people will die from the FLU! WWI 25 million

6 Communist Constitution, 1922 Set up an elected legislature called the Supreme Soviet Any person over 18 could vote All political power, resources, and means of production belonged to the PEOPLE. Communists had the FINAL SAY

7 NEP- New Economic Policy 1921 Lenin answers the economy by coming up with the NEP State controlled banks, foreign trade, large industries Small businesses allowed to operate for private profit Peasants held onto small plots of land and could SELL surplus!

8 Results of NEP Compromise with Capitalism Allowed for Russia s economy to recover Ended armed resistance to new government By 1928, food and industrial production was back to pre-wwi levels What happens to Lenin? May 13th, 1924

9 White army will kill him for autocracy (white army represents the old regime, 54 yrs. old)

10 Lenin Gets SHOT! April 30, 1918 A lady will approach Lenin and shoot him 3 times. Once in the arm, second in the jaw and neck, third bullet missed him. The took him to his apartment and left the bullets in him for a slow recovery. April 24, 1922 they removed the bullet in his neck. He will have headaches and 3 strokes.

11 Life Under Lenin Named the Communist party from Karl Marx writings. Called it that because of central planning by state and when workers seized power. (1922)

12 Lenin will die of Tuberculosis and Pneumonia Power Struggles for Communist Leaders Leon Trotsky Brilliant Marxist Thinker Skillful Public Speaker Architect of Revolution - Did not support - Stalin. Joseph Stalin Not a Scholar Not a Skilled Orator Shrewd Political Operator Behind-the-Scenes Organizer Led the Red army during Revolution

13 Leon Trotsky Firm Marxist who wanted support for world-wide revolutions against Capitalism Wanted to spread communism throughout Europe. Stalin wanted to spread communism in Russia. Will be isolated by Stalin Exiled in 1929, to Mexico Murdered in Mexico by a Stalinist agent in 1940 with an ice pick to the head.(by a friend)

14 Belly theory: if you are hungry you don t care what the gov. is. Joseph Stalin, Man of Steel History of prison and Siberian exile Not an important role in the Revolution and Civil War 1920s, Elected General Secretary of the Communist Party Lenin warned the party about Stalin. comrade Stalin has concentrated enormous power in his hands; and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution.

15 The Soviet Union under Stalin Part II Russia was ceaselessly beaten for her backwardness... Because to beat her was profitable and went unpunished. -Stalin-

16 Russia Intro: Russians are fatalistic: that is the way it is. Natural Russian barriers: ice, snow, mud Religion: Orthodox Catholicism ritual based Live, Work and Die! No Sanitation. Gulag: 3 year life expectancy, built new roads, Gulags, subway. (labor camp ) 25% of govt. income comes from liquor tax! 1/3 people live on 60 Rubles a month=.30 US. 100 nationalities, 130 languages

17 Capitalism-Socialism-Communism-Totalitarianism What is the difference between Stalin and Lenin? BOTH were Bolsheviks, looking forward to make a communist state in Russia. LENIN was more democratic, he didn't purge everyone. Finally he was for NEP (temporary capitalistic) development of Russia and then the communism. STALIN was an opportunist, a communist to his personal benefit. He was Rude, disgraceful and totally TOTALITARIAN. He abolished NEP and started "socialistic" policies.

18 Five Year Plan: Plan to turn Russia into a modern industrial power 1928: Industrial Revolution of sorts Build Heavy Industry Improve Transportation Increase Farm Output All Economic Activity under Gov t Control

19 Results of 5 Year Plans, hugely successful!!! High goals, limited production of CONSUMER GOODS!!! Gave bonuses to those who met goals, punished those who did not (Siberia) Large factories, hydroelectric power stations, huge industrial complexes Oil, coal, steel production increased New Railroads

20 Effects on People Overall, Russians had little to show Standards of living remained poor, wages low Scarce availability for consumer goods Large quantities but low quality Focus on Heavy Industry- electricity generated went up 800 percent in 10 years, and steel production went from 4 million tons to 18 million.

21 Agricultural Revolution 5-10 million died in the process of collectivization! Stalin forced peasants to give up their land to live on state-owned farms Collectives: Large farms owned and operated by group of peasants State set prices and controlled access to farm supplies

22 Goals of Collectives- families worked with hundreds of others Provide tractors, fertilizers, better seeds Teach peasants modern farm methods Surplus grain was also sold abroad to earn $ to invest Govt. subsidized bread.

23 Russia had 25 million farms in 1928 Resistance by the People Peasant resisted by Killing farm animals Destroying tools Burning crops Government responds with brutal force By % of all people lived on collectives

24 Kulaks and Labor Camps Wealthy peasants, Kulaks, were rounded up. Sent to labor camps Gov t confiscated their lands and cattle of peasants Thousands died from labor or were killed

25 Labor Camps in Siberia White Hell, The Sleeping land, the Deaf Place, The Land of Death and Chains. 1/5 of Russia is desert 60% of that is in Siberia

26 Effects of Collectivization Peasants grew just enough so gov t seized all grain leaving people to starve Poor harvests and gov t action led to famine 5-8 million people died as a result Did not improve farm output Increased Stalin s control

27 Life in the Gulag: Only 10 % survived

28 The END Who was worse? Lenin or Stalin? Soviet Union Symbol

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