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1 1. Chapter Eight 2. Columbus discovered America in Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in Washington became President and our US Constitution went into effect in Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and the Civil War started the following year. 6. In 1800, Federalists John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney ran against Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. 7. Jefferson and Burr tied, with 73 electoral votes each. 8. The House broke the tie by selecting Jefferson to be president; Burr became vice president. 9. The tie led to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment, which provided for a separate ballot for president and vice president. 10. Adams and the Federalists 11. Rule by the wealthy class. 12. Strong federal government. 13. Emphasis on industry. 14. Loose interpretation of the Constitution. 15. British alliance. 16. Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans 17. Rule by the people. 18. Strong state governments. 19. Emphasis on agriculture. 20. Strict interpretation of the Constitution. 21. French alliance. 22. John Adams was the first President to live in the White House. 23. Thomas Jefferson was the first President to be inaugurated in the White House. 24. President Jefferson and the Democratic-Republican controlled Congress helped put republican ideas into practice. 25. Allowed the Alien and Sedition Acts to expire. 26. Lowered military spending. 27. Believed main functions of federal government were: 28. Protecting the nation from foreign threats. 29. Delivering mail. 30. Collecting customs duties or tariffs. 31. Kept some Federalist ideas, like Bank of the United States.

2 32. Chief Justice John Marshall wrote Court s opinion in Marbury v. Madison. 33. Ruling established judicial review Court s power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. 34. Made judicial branch equal to other two branches of government. 35. Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796), and Ohio (1803) were admitted as our 15 th, 16 th & 17 th states. The 14 th state was Vermont. 36. Settlers depended on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers to move products east. 37. Jefferson worried about foreign control of New Orleans and Louisiana. 38. Spain controlled both New Orleans and Louisiana land stretching from Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains. 39. Spain gave land to France in treaty. 40. French leader Napoléon wanted to rebuild France s empire in North America. 41. Jefferson sent James Monroe as ambassador to France to try to buy New Orleans for $10 million. 42. The French offered to sell all of Louisiana for $15 million. 43. Louisiana Purchase approved by Senate on October 20, Nearly doubled size of United States. 45. Lewis and Clark Expedition 46. Expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase. 47. Led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. 48. Included Sacagawea as an Indian guide/interpreter. 49. Began near St. Louis on May 14, They followed the Missouri River to the Rockies. 51. Reached the Pacific Ocean in November, Zebulon Pike, an army officer, led another expedition to the West in Headed into Rocky Mountains in present-day Colorado. 54. Traveled into Spanish lands and was arrested. 55. Pike s report offered Americans their first description of the Southwest. 56. Overseas trade was profitable but risky. 57. Barbary pirates, along the coast of Africa, would capture ships.

3 58. Attacks continued until the United States sent the USS Constitution ( Old Ironsides ) and other warships to stop the pirates. 59. British sailors were forced to return called impressment. 60. British ship Leopard stopped U.S. Navy ship Chesapeake and took sailors by force. 61. Embargo Act was passed in 1807, banning trade with all foreign countries. 62. Devastated American merchants, who lost much money without trade. 63. Damaged Jefferson and strengthened Federalists. 64. Had little effect on Britain and France. 65. Congress replaced unpopular Embargo Act with Non- Intercourse Act in Banned trade only with Britain and France. 67. U.S. trade would resume with first side to stop violating American neutrality. 68. Law was no more successful than Embargo Act. 69. British and Native Americans clashed with American settlers over land in the West. 70. British agents armed Native Americans along western frontier. 71. Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, emerged as leader. 72. Hoped to unite Native Americans of northwestern frontier, the South, and the eastern Mississippi Valley. 73. Tecumseh founded a village near Tippecanoe and Wabash rivers in Indiana Territory. 74. He wanted to unite the Native Americans to resist settlers. 75. Governor William Henry Harrison warned Tecumseh not to resist power of the United States. 76. Harrison led army in attack on village in U.S. forces won Battle of Tippecanoe, and Tecumseh fled to Canada. 78. Evidence of British support for Tecumseh inflamed Americans. 79. Some young members of Congress from the South and West, called War Hawks, demanded war against Britain. 80. They wanted to invade Canada for more land to settle. 81. New England Federalists opposed war. 82. Trade restrictions hurt New England s economy. 83. Republican James Madison was elected president in Felt growing pressure from War Hawks.

4 85. Decided Congress must vote on war in Congress declared war for the first time in the nation s history. 87. Madison was reelected in Would serve as commander in chief during War of Britain had hundreds of ships, but most were scattered around the globe. 90. Americans had less than 20 ships, but had well-trained sailors and new warships like the powerful USS Constitution. 91. American ships victorious in one-on-one battles. 92. British blockaded seaports. 93. American leaders wanted to invade Canada. 94. Attacks in 1812 failed. 95. Oliver Hazard Perry won naval Battle of Lake Erie in American control of Lake Erie established. 97. British driven out of Northwest in War erupted with Native Americans in the South, who were angry at settlers pushing into their lands. 99. Creeks attacked Fort Mims in Alabama, killing about 250 defenders Andrew Jackson, leading 2,000 volunteers, defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama in The Treaty of Fort Jackson ended war in 1814 and forced the Creeks to give up millions of acres of their land British Attacks in East 103. British attacked Washington, D.C., in Set fire to White House, Capitol, and other buildings British shelled Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Maryland Francis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangled Banner Americans refused to surrender, and British retreated British moved against New Orleans Hoped to capture city and control Mississippi River Andrew Jackson commanded U.S. forces at New Orleans Troops included regular soldiers, free African Americans, Choctaws, state militia, and pirates led by Jean Lafitte Battle began on January 8, 1815, with 5,300 British troops against about 4,500 Americans American victory at Battle of New Orleans made Jackson a hero and was last major conflict of the war.

5 114. Group of New England Federalists were going to Hartford Convention to oppose war, but the war ended before the convention Treaty of Ghent was signed before the battle of New Orleans Feelings of patriotism rose among Americans Lack of goods during blockade boosted American manufacturing.

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