Chapter 6: The Origins of American Politics

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1 Chapter 6: The Origins of American Politics Section 1: Liberty vs. Order in the 1700s I. Hamilton s Debt Relief Plan A. Hamilton was a loose constructionist, interpreting the Constitution broadly B. Hamilton s goal was to create an economic plan to pay off national debt C. He called for the national government to assume states debt D. Opposition 1. Southern states don t want to pay for debts incurred by northern states 2. Most believed that the fed was interfering with state affairs 3. The federal government already had MAD debt 4. Opponents thought Hamilton s plan was too similar to the tactics of the British against the colonies 5. The Jeffersonian Republicans were completely against Hamilton s philosophy, believing Hamilton was betraying the American Revolution a. Strict constructionist: limiting the government s powers to those expressed clearly in the Constitution b. Weak central government c. No national bank E. Solutions 1. Congress passed a tariff on imported goods (1789) 2. Congress passed a whiskey tax in 1791

2 3. Congress establishes the Bank of the United States II. Division Over Foreign Policy A. The French Revolution and the Reign of Terror divide Americans 1. Federalists didn t support it because they thought it was democratic revolution gone wrong 2. Jeffersonian Republicans loved it because they saw the FR as an extension 3. Edmond Genet tried to encourage American citizens to fight against British privateers. Washington has to ask that Genet be sent back but the poor thing fears execution. B. America proclaims it neutrality despite the fact that Britain seized neutral trading ships C. Jay s Treaty 1. Britain agreed to leave forts in the Northwest Territory 2. Britain refused to end their practice of stopping neutral American ships and this causes controversy in the U.S. 3. Citizens believe the treaty is a sellout III. The Emergence of Political Parties A. Whiskey Rebellion (1794) 1. Whiskey made from corn and transported without spoiling 2. Whiskey acted as a form of currency

3 3. Western Penn residents hate the tax and close down courthouses as well as attack tax collectors 4. Washington responds and unlike Shays Rebellion, the protest dissolves and people understand that the national government WILL enforce laws B. The Democratic Republicans 1. Having more issues with Hamilton and the Federalist 2. Many Americans felt betrayed by the Federalists 3. The Democratic-Republicans along with the Federalists were the first political party C. John Adams runs for President in 1796 as a Federalist while Jefferson and Aaron Burr ran on the Republican side. Adams wins but Jefferson, the 2 nd highest vote-getter, becomes VP. IV. Washington s Farewell Address A. Warned against competing political parties because they would create drama and animosity and could lead to insurrections B. Called for neutrality when it came to foreign policy

4 Section 2: The Struggle Over Foreign Policy I. The War Between the U.S. and Native Americans A. A history of violent exchanges B. America was expanding and consequently displacing American C. The Battle of Fallen Timbers where the NAs were soundly defeated by the Legion of the United States D. Other NAs forced to accept the Treaty of Greenville 1. Forced them to give up 2/3 of Ohio 2. Forced them to accept that the Ohio River was no longer a permanent boundary between their land and those of white settlers II. The Defining Moments of the Adams Presidency A. The XYZ Affair 1. France was upset that we had Jay s Treaty with Britain so France starts seizing American ships. We send our diplomats to work out the drama. 2. French agents X, Y, Z demanded $250,000 and a $10 million loan to the French govt. before they would allow the American diplomats to talk to the French foreign minister. 3. Americans find out about the scandal and are angry with France. Adams gets tough and calls back the U.S. diplomats. B. The Alien and Sedition Acts

5 1. President has the power to deport citizens of other countries who are living in the U.S. 2. Persons must wait 14 years in order to become U.S. citizens 3. Criticizing the government is illegal unless you can prove your claims C. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1. These two states argued that states had the right to rule determine whether a federal law was illegal D. More Domestic Tensions 1. Federalists and Republicans continue to fight each other 2. Gabriel Prosser, inspired by the rhetoric of the American Revolution, leads small slave rebellion in Richmond, VA in the summer of Thirty of them including Prosser and caught and executed. III. The Election of 1800: A Turning Point The election leaves its mark on the early development of the United States A. Adams lost support of other Federalists 1. Adams sent another group of American diplomats in 1799 to keep peace 2. Since we made peace with France, the Alien and Sedition Acts are pointless 3. He and Hamilton, a fellow Federalist, become staunch enemies B. Jefferson becomes the symbol of strong leadership, using the Federalist infighting to help himself

6 C. Jefferson is elected president in 1800 by appealing to the common man, a contrast of the traditional Federalist position that only the educated and elite could run government D. Jefferson actually had to be voted into office by the House of Representatives because he tied with Aaron Burr his OWN VP candidate

7 Section 3: The Age of Jefferson I. How Jefferson Reduced National Government Powers A. Jefferson s goal was to reduce influence of national government in people s everyday affairs B. He cut the size of the bureaucracy including the army C. Jefferson and the Courts 1. Judiciary Act of 1789 created a national court system with circuit courts and gave the Supreme Court the power to settle differences between states and federal laws 2. Outgoing President Adams tried to appoints as many Federalist judges or midnight judges as possible before he left office. a) John Marshall is among them and is appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison a) Jefferson tried to deny appointments of Federalist judges including William Marbury b) Madison, now Secretary of State, tries to block Marbury s appointment 4. Marshalll ruled against Marbury and more importantly created a precedent for judicial review, the power of courts to decide whether laws passed by Congress are constitutional II. Jefferson and the Election of 1804

8 A. Jefferson easily won re-election B. Jefferson s Accomplishments 1. He lowered taxes 2. Acquired major new territories a) Land Act of 1800, Americans were able to buy small plots of land on credit b) The Louisiana Purchase: Jefferson purchases Louisiana for $15 million dollars. c) Financed the Lewis and Clark Expedition which searched for river routes to the western ocean 3. Allowed the unpopular Alien and Sedition Acts to expire 4. The Federalist Party was greatly weakened by the Burr-Hamilton debacle. a) Hamilton blocked Burr from becoming governor of NY b) Hamilton had also encouraged people to support Jefferson over Burr for President c) Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and killed him d) Burr fled NY and went on to be tried for treason after attempting to invade Mexico III. Tensions With Europe A. European nations battled each other B. British ship the Leopard attacks USS Chesapeake, killing 21 people C. The Embargo of 1807

9 1. Banned almost all trade with foreign nations 2. Many Americans hated the embargo because it hurt their profits 3. It ruined Jefferson s second term because many saw the embargo as the nation s interference with the economy

10 Section 4: The War of 1812 I. Native American Reactions A. Some like Little Turtle accepted white culture, trying to live peaceably with them B. Some like Handsome Lake tried to blend Indian and white cultures but on Native American terms C. The Shawnee prophet Tenskwatawa opposed assimilation and called for Indians to return to their native rituals. D. Tenskwatawa s brother Tecumseh fought against the U.S. 1. Believed it was the only way to resist U.S. expansion 2. Refused to participate in signing of the Treaty of Greenville 3. Battle of Tippecanoe: Tenske sends warriors to fight Gov. William Henry Harrison in the Indiana Territory. Nobody wins but the NAs morale is shattered. 4. Tecumseh later died in the Battle of the Thames in 1813 II. The War of 1812 A. Americans believed that Great Britain was encouraging Native Americans to attack settlers B. The Causes

11 1. In addition, the new Congress had new members like Henry Clay and John Calhoun of South Carolina and both were War Hawks who wanted to go to war against Britain 2. Anger toward Britain finally pushed President James Madison to ask Congress to declare war on Britain and the War of 1812 is ON 3. Impressment on the British government s part C. The U.S. had a small army and navy AND no offers of foreign assistance D. In addition, the Native Americans were still angered by western expansion E. The U.S. foolishly invaded Brit-controlled Canada. We get whipped! F. We won few battles but two of our leaders, William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson, were future presidents 1. Creek Indians forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson which led them to give up land that would become Alabama and southern Georgia G. The British naval blockade crippled our economy H. With Britain ending their war with France in 1814, they focused all of their attention on defeating the United States 1. 4,000 British troops descend on Washington DC 2. Madison and his wife flee the capitol before it is burned 3. The citizens of Baltimore turned back the British but the damage was done 4. Future national anthem is written by Francis Scott Key

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