US History Refresher

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1 US History Refresher US History Refresher video

2 Objective 1.01: Identify the major domestic issues and conflicts experienced by the nation during the Federalist Period. Objective 1.02: Analyze the political freedoms available to the following groups prior to 1820: women, wage earners, landless farmers, American Indians, African Americans, and other ethnic groups. Objective 1.03: Assess commercial and diplomatic relationships with Britain, France, and other nations. Wakesocialstudies.com

3 Wakesocialstudies.com George Washington Takes the Oath of Office George Washington's Inauguration video

4 (1789) George Washington answers the call to become the 1st president The daunting task of shaping a new government James Madison We are in a wilderness without a single footstep to guide us

5 Judicial Act of 1789 This act designed the federal court system Set up a court that consisted of a chief justice and 5 supreme court justices It also set up 3 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courts Bill of Rights 1 st task by new Congress

6 Shaping of the Executive Branch Washington set up his executive branch that consisted originally of a president and vice president First cabinet Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton- Secretary of the Treasury Henry Knox- Secretary of war Edmund Randolph- Attorney General

7 Hamilton vs. Jefferson Hamilton: powerful federal government Jefferson: strong state & local control Hamilton's economic plan (funding the national debt) 2/3 national govt. debt 1/3 state debt» The federal govt. will assume all the debt and issue new bonds» This would place a special interest on the lenders (elite) insuring the new federal govt. was successful

8 National Bank Funded by both the federal government and private lenders Hamilton hoped to tie wealthy investors to the country s welfare Bank of the United States Issue paper money Handle tax receipts Other government funds

9 Opponents of the National Bank This would forge un-healthy alliance between the govt. & the business interests The national bank was unconstitutional Money should be based on gold and silver This sparked, strict vs. loose interpretation of the Constitution Hamilton s view was accepted and the bank was created A divide began to emerge between the North & South

10 Domestic Issues In 1789 Congress passed a protective tariff that was meant to benefit American producers Hamilton wanting more money to pay off the national debt, pushed through an excise tax on Whiskey This angered many frontier farmers Whisky Rebellion (1794) Whiskey Rebellion Video 1 st show of force, for new govt.

11 1st Political Parties Federalist & Democratic- Republicans Federalist- Hamilton (strong central government) Democratic- Republicans- Jefferson (strong state governments) Framers did not anticipate the rise of a two party system

12 Indian Resistance Conflicts in the Northwest Territory caused Washington to send troops to secure land Native Americans suffered their last defeat at the battle of fallen timbers in 1794» The Treaty of Greenville was signed ceding much of the land in modern day Ohio to the US» Opening the Northwest Territory

13 Foreign Affairs Emerges French Revolution Madison and Jefferson supported France Hamilton supported British Pushing political parties apart further After disagreements between both sides of the cabinet, Washington declared neutrality Jefferson and Hamilton agreed that another war was not in the best interest

14 Blockade (1793) Renewed fighting between France and Britain threatened American shipping Great Britain Blockaded France s ships Over 1000 American ships were seized by Britain and France seized ½ that Americans focused anger at Britain» Impressment: forcing American Sailors into serving in the British Navy

15 Jay s Treaty (1794) Pioneers moving west faced to 2 problems British Forts and Indians British pushed Indians to resist the pioneers John Jay (Chief Justice of the Supreme Court) Secured land west of the App mnts. However Jay did not secure the most important things» Impressment, exporting goods (cotton), and allowing British trade in the region

16 Pinckney s Treaty Treaty with Spain Thomas Pinckney Signed a Treaty to secure land east of the Miss As well as secured trade down the Miss River with Spain Opened the port of New Orleans for American use Established northern boundary of Spanish Fla.

17 Washington s Farewell Address With constant turmoil among foreign policy and in his cabinet, Washington did not seek a third term In his farewell address he urged the US to: steer clear from making alliances with foreign nations not to form political parties

18 Wakesocialstudies.com Election of 1796 John Adams becomes President and Jefferson Vice France states the Jay Treaty as a breech of French-American Alliance France began to seize American ships bound for Britain Adams sent 3 delegates to France to negotiate a treaty France declined to allow them to meet with the Directory and instead he sent 3 low level officials to ask for a bribe of 250,000 to speak to Talleyrand» XYZ affair» Americans became outraged and a un declared navel war raged on for 2 years

19 Alien and Sedition Acts Because of a growing anti-french feeling among Americans the Alien and sedition Acts were passed by Federalist in Congress Raising the residence requirement to become an American from 5 to 14 years Allowed the president to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable Set fines and jail terms for anyone trying to hinder the govt. Could not write, print, or utter anything against the US govt. policy

20 The Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Democratic-Republicans argued the Acts violated freedom of speech granted by the 1 st Amendment Two main DR leaders, Jefferson & Madison sought nullification The states had the right to nullify any act of congress they saw as unconstitutional. This fight died out by the next election Showed the balance of power between the national govt. and state govt. is an ongoing controversy

21 Election of 1800 Struggle between Thomas Jefferson (DR) and President John Adams (Federalist) Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 votes Jefferson s running mate, Aaron Burr received just as many votes The House began to decide who would get the presidency» This deadlock exposed a problem in the electoral process, Congress then passed the 12 th Amendment

22 Wakesocialstudies.com John Marshall Appointed by John Adams He served for 30 years, handing down decision after decision that would strengthen the national government Federalist control in the Judiciary Midnight Judges Adams before leaving office pushed through the Judiciary act of federal judges instead of 13 Jefferson argued this was invalid

23 Wakesocialstudies.com Buying the west Louisiana Purchase LA purchase Video Louisiana Purchase Video

24 Jefferson sends explorers to the new purchased territory Sacajawea also helped Lewis & Clark s exploration Lewis & Clark Video

25 Wakesocialstudies.com

26 More Foreign entanglements Great Britain & France began fighting again Embargo of 1807 Chesapeake incident: A British Commander opened fire on an US ship killing 3 and wounding 18 Jefferson convinced Congress to pass and Embargo Act of 1807, which would hurt Britain In 1809 Congress lifted the embargo on foreign trade except for France and Britain

27 Tecumseh Western Troubles (1809) In the Treaty of Fort Wayne, William Henry Harrison persuaded Indian chiefs to sign away 2.5 million acres of tribal land to the US Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee prophet and his brother Tecumseh did not want to budge and tried to persuade other tribes to fight» He also tried to persuade Britain to help in the inevitable fight with the white man» A battle at the Tippecanoe ended in a US victory for Harrison and pushed the Native Americans towards the British

28 War Hawks After the battle of Tippecanoe it was discovered that Indians were using British Canada arms War hawks: a young group of congressman from the south who called for war against Britain Leaders A newly elected Speaker of the House Henry Clay and SC Representative John C. Calhoun

29 The War of 1812 Newly elected James Madison declared war Britain is strangling trade and crippling the American economy War in Canada Americans suffered numerous setbacks Indians fought with the British as well as on the side of Americans War at Sea British ships outnumbered American warships Blockades began to bottle up American ships in port

30 Burning of D.C British in retaliation of the American troops burning York in Canada, Burned the White House and many other federal buildings Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson Jackson s troops defeated a superior number of British troops in New Orleans, 100 s of British troops died to Jackson s handful

31 Wakesocialstudies.com Hartford Convention Event which took place in 1815 as the War of 1812 raged on New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the US was discussed. At the end of the war with a return to the status quo ante bellum disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places

32 Treaty of Ghent Unknown to Jackson British and American diplomats in 1814 signed the Treaty of Ghent, declaring an armistice Although this treaty did not address impressments or neutral shipping rights, Americans were ready for and end Boundaries of the US remained unchanged Adam Onis Treaty The acquisition of Florida by the US & the establishment of a boundary line between Spanish territory & the US

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