Democratic Republican Era

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1 Democratic Republican Era Thomas Jefferson s Administration James Madison s Administration James Monroe s Administration Jefferson Monroe Madison Following the election of 1800, the Democratic Republicans took power for the next 25 years Also known as the Virginia Dynasty

2 James Madison s Adm Following Washington s precedent, Jefferson did not seek a third term. The Democratic- Republicans nominated James Madison as their candidate for the presidency. The Federalists nominated Charles Pinckney. Madison won with 142 Electoral College votes to Pinckney s 47.

3 James and Dolly Madison Dolly Madison: The President s Greatest Asset James Madison as President

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5 The Non-Intercourse Act Q Q Q Replaced the Embargo Act. Congress enacted the Non intercourse Act, which cut off all trade with Great Britain and France. The act also carried an offer to Great Britain and France, whichever country dropped their restrictions on American neutrality rights, the United States would drop the act. Unexpected Consequences: N. Eng. was forced to become self-sufficient again [old factories reopened]. Laid the groundwork for US industrial power. Jefferson, a critic of an industrial America, ironically contributed to Hamilton s view of the US!!!

6 Macon s Bill In 1810, Congress replaced the Non Intercourse Act with Macon s Bill Number 2. Nathaniel Macon from North Carolina proposed the bill. He was the chairman of the House of Committee of Foreign Affairs. This bill restored intercourse with Great Britain and France. Under this bill, when either Britain or France formally agreed to respect American neutrality rights, Congress would cut off trade with the other nation.

7 The Cadore Letter Napoleon, in the Cadore letter, said France would drop restrictions on trade with the United States. Madison immediately cut off trade with Great Britain. Napoleon fooled Madison and continued to impress American ships. Great Britain continued to seize American ships as well.

8 The Western Problem As Madison tried to settle the disputes across the seas, news had arrived about problems in the West. Ohio became a state in Between 1801 and 1810, many Americans settled the Ohio Valley. Americans were moving westward and taking land from the Indians. British General Brock met with Tecumseh and provided military aid to the Indians in order to prevent American expansion into the West and into Canada

9 Tecumseh Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett, the Mochican, the Pocanet, and other powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the avarice and oppression of the white man, as snow before the summer sun... Sleep not longer, O Choctaws and Chickasaws... Will not the bones of our dead be plowed up, and their graves turned into plowed fields? Tecumseh, 1811, The Portable North American Indian Reader (accessed November 5, 2010).

10 Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 Q Q Q Q Q General William Henry Harrison governor of the Indiana Territory. Invited Native Indian chiefs to Ft. Wayne, IN to sign away 3 mil. acres of land to the US government. Tecumseh organized a confederacy of Indian tribes to fight for their homelands. Tecumseh s brother, the Prophet, a spiritual leader, fought against Harrison and was defeated at Tippecanoe. This made Harrison a national hero! [1840 election Tippecanoe & Tyler, too!] Tecumseh William Henry Harrison

11 Annul the treaty of Fort Wayne or I will make an alliance with the British and destroy you once and for all! Arm yourself men! Wait, Tecumseh, he comes in Peace!

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13 Little Belt Affair A May 16, 1811 engraving shows USS President battling HMS Little Belt. More impressment leading to the War of 1812!

14 War Hawks Henry Clay [KY] John C. Calhoun [SC] Congressional elections in 1810 demanded a more aggressive policy against Great Britain. Henry Clay of Kentucky was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives. The Speaker of the House is the officer who presides over the House of Representatives. New England Federalists, who were hurt from the trade restrictions and impressment, opposed the War Hawks

15 Presidential Election of 1812 James Madison was the Democratic- Republican incumbent. Dewitt Clinton won the Federalist nomination. James Madison won a second term as the president. James Madison, on June 1, 1812, was the first president to ask Congress for a formal declaration of war

16 Mr. Madison s War! Causes for the War of 1812 Americans wanted freedom on the seas -free trade and sailor s rights. Americans saw an opportunity for expansion into Canada and Florida. The War of 1812 stemmed from American nationalism. The United States was not getting enough respect that it deserved.

17 Q Q Q Q American Problems The US was unprepared militarily: Incompetent military leaders Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain s 800 ships. The British were superior on the seas Did, however had trained sailors and new warships Constitution Americans disliked a draft preferred to enlist in the disorganized state militias. Financially unprepared: Flood of paper $. Revenue from import tariffs declined. Regional disagreements. There were communication problems.

18 Overview of the War of 1812 American leaders planned to invade Canada with three separate armies They expected French Canada to be no problem at all, but the British and Indian united forces, led by Tecumseh controlled the Great Lakes

19 U. S. Invasions of 1812 The War Begins Divided against itself and unprepared for a fight, the United States fared badly at the beginning of the war. General William Hull surrendered an army of about 2000 to a British Canadian force near Detroit. Other attempts followed to reach Canada, but the United States failed.

20 Land/Sea Campaigns, 1813 By 1813, the situation of the United States had improved. Oliver Hazard Perry, commander of the Lake Erie naval forces, had defeated the British at Put-in-Bay, off Sandusky, Ohio. We have met the enemy, and they are ours, Perry reported. Perry was able to ferry General William Henry Harrison s army to Canada. In 1813, Harrison defeated the British at the Battle of Thames. Tecumseh died at this battle. Americans also defeated the British at the Battle of Lake Champlain.

21 Oliver Hazard Perry, victory at Lake Erie

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23 Jackson s Florida Campaigns In the Southwest of the United States, a Tennessee farmer, Andrew Jackson, defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

24 Napoleon is Defeated Napoleon finally was defeated after his costly invasion of Russia in The nations of Europe allied against Napoleon and sent him to exile on an island in the Mediterranean Sea.

25 British Offensive The British planned to thrust south from Canada, west from the Atlantic Ocean to Washington D.C., and through the Gulf of Mexico to New Orleans. In August 24, 1814, the British attacked Washington D.C. and destroyed the President s mansion and the nation s Capitol building.

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27 Battle of Fort McHenry Much to everyone s surprise, the British did not try to hold Washington. They left the city and sailed north to try to capture Baltimore, Maryland. The British were defeated at Ft. McHenry in September Francis Scott Key, a young attorney, wrote the poem called The Star-Spangled Banner.

28 The Star-Spangled Banner Oh Say Can You See By the Dawn s Early Light Gave proof through the night, That our flag was still there -- Francis Scott Key

29 Hartford Convention December, 1814 January, 1815 New England Federalists met in Hartford, Connecticut to oppose the war Radical New England Federalists considered secession, or withdrawal for the United States Some moderate Federalists just wanted to increase the power of states rights, ironically enough (because the Republicans controlled Congress and the Presidency) Interesting role reversal because the southern states will later secede from the United States and start the Civil War

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31 Treaty of Ghent The treaty to end the War of 1812, was signed on December 24, 1814 Belgium Nothing was said of American neutrality rights or the impressment of sailors. Neither side demanded territory. Both sides agreed to stop fighting. For the United States, the War of 1812 was a narrow escape from potential disaster However, Americans were proud that the young nation stood up to the mighty British empire Albert Gallatin Henry Clay John Quincy Adams

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33 The Battle of New Orleans Before word of the treaty reached the United States, one final battle was fought. In December 1814, a British army under the command of General Sir Edward Pakenham moved towards New Orleans, Louisiana. Awaiting them was an American army led by General Andrew Jackson.

34 The Battle of New Orleans On January 8, 1815, Packenham s troops advanced. By days end more than 2000 redcoats, including General Packenham, lay dead on the field. Americans achieved a decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson became a hero, and his fame helped him win the presidency in 1828.

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