JAMES MADISON AND THE WAR OF Or is it the Second American Revolution?

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1 JAMES MADISON AND THE WAR OF 1812 Or is it the Second American Revolution?

2 James Madison From Virginia Author of the Constitution Advocate for the Bill of Rights Leader in the House of Representatives Secretary of State 5 4 tall 100 pounds Qualified to be President?

3 James Madison Wins Democratic- Republicans Madison 122 Electoral Votes Federalists Charles Pinckney 47 Electoral Votes

4 Madison s Policies Napoleon claimed to respect U.S. Neutrality (He lied) British repealed Orders-in-Council (restrictions on trade) Non-intercourse Act U.S. trade with all nations but France and Britain Allowed trade if both respected neutrality Macon s Bill #2 Reopened trade with Britain and France in 1810 New sanctions if either interfered with trade

5 Madison s Policies Neither France nor Britain seemed to respect either act What should Madison do if other countries aren t respecting American right to commerce and trade?

6 Frontier Issues Expansionists and War Hawks Canada Florida Indian Problems in the NW and SW Chief Tecumseh (Shawnee) Prophet Tenskwatawa (Tecumseh s brother) Republicans accused British of arming Indians against Americans

7 Tecumseh, Shawnee Chief Revived old Indian confederacy in Ohio Valley Goal: keep whites out Created strong culture Focused on Indian pride

8 William Henry Harrison Governor of Indiana Territory Led forces against Tecumseh Battle of Tippecanoe Defeated Shawnee Killed Tecumseh The curse?

9 Tenskwatawa, The Prophet Zero Factor? Following loss he supposedly put a curse that white leaders would die every 20 years 1840 William Henry Harrison; died in office 1860 Abraham Lincoln; killed in office 1880 James Garfield; killed in office 1900 William McKinley; killed in office 1920 Warren G. Harding; died in office 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt; died in office 1960 John F. Kennedy; killed in office 1980 Ronald Reagan; shot in office (survived)

10 THE BRITISH AND FRENCH ARE BOTHERING YOU AT SEA... THE BRITISH ARE AIDING INDIAN TRIBES IN THE WEST... WHAT SHOULD MADISON DO?

11 War Hawks John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) Henry Clay (Kentucky) These two Representatives are pressing for war!

12 Madison s Rationale for War Economic strategies (Non- Intercourse Act, Macon s Bill) not working Madison told British to respect territory in west British didn t respond

13 Declaration of War Madison asks for declaration of war Split on regional and party lines Federalists/Northeast anti-war Democratic-Republicans/South and West pro-war Senate vote in favor House vote in favor

14 Official Reasons for War Violation of neutrality Seizure of America ships Impressment of American sailors Lack of respect for western territory Valid reasons to go to war? Meanwhile...

15 James Madison Wins Again Democratic- Republicans Madison 128 Electoral Votes Federalists De Witt Clinton 89 Electoral Votes

16 The War of 1812 Early American Successes Later British Successes Invasion of Canada Burned capital city, York (Toronto) Harrison attacked and captured Detroit Oliver Hazard Perry defeated British on Lake Erie Had to withdraw due to lack of support (troops and materials) from the New England states Strong navy threatened American ports British force landed on Chesapeake Bay Burned Washington D.C. Attempted to capture Baltimore Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key Star Spangled Banner

17 Sack of Washington

18 Not So White House

19 Dolley Payne Madison

20 Fort McHenry

21 Francis Scott Key

22 The War of 1812 Key Battle Lake Champlain American victory Prevented British invasion of Hudson River Valley and New York City Forced British return to Canada

23

24 Commander Thomas McDonough

25 Military Theaters of Operation

26 Secession?

27 Hartford Convention Reaction to Virginia Dynasty & Mr. Madison s War Abolish 3/5s clause determining House of Reps 2/3rds vote to declare war or admit new states No embargoes more than 60 days No foreign-born to hold federal offices 1 term presidents No successive presidents from same state

28 Discredited

29 Treaty of Ghent

30 Treaty of Ghent American negotiators John Quincy Adams Albert Gallatin Henry Clay

31 Treaty of Ghent Results No change of borders Future negotiations for unresolved disputes Did the War of 1812 accomplish anything?

32 Wait... The war s not over yet! Battle of New Orleans Why is New Orleans significant? Key Players United States Andrew Jackson Britain General Edward Packenham American forces consisted of Americans Indians Spanish French Slaves Free Blacks

33 Wait... The war s not over yet! January 8, 1815 British forces attack Americans slaughter British Battle over in less than an hour 13 Americans killed 291 British (including Packenham) killed

34 Andrew Jackson the Hero of New Orleans

35 Impact of the War of 1812 Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison are national heroes for Role in war Elimination of native tribes Harrison in NW Jackson in SW Federalist party is dead Democrat-Republicans have all the power We enter the Era of Good Feelings James Monroe (Virginia Dynasty) will become a two-term president Ends any British thought of recapturing lost colonies

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