THE AGE OF JEFFERSON

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1 THE AGE OF JEFFERSON

2 With respect to the Constitution, Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? Essential Question

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4 The Jefferson Administration Continue Neutrality -did not adhere Encouraged the sale of western lands Reduced: Military (3,000) Bureaucracy Power of the federal gov t Repealed excise taxes National Debt(did not eliminate) Government Jobs Maintained: National Bank Debt-repayment plan

5 Importance of Mississippi River Spain closes New Orleans (1802) Native Americans were offered a choice of assimilation or moving west of the Mississippi Governor William Harrison drove Indians out of Prophetstown Louisiana Purchase (1803) Negotiations: $10 million for New Orleans and part of Florida Reply? $15 million for all of Louisiana Constitutional? Most territory was west of New Orleans Jefferson wanted a port to provide an outlet for western crops Lewis and Clark Expedition ( ) Western Expansion

6 Many years after his first election to the presidency, Thomas Jefferson commented that the revolution of 1800 was as real a revolution in the principles of our government as that of 1776 was in its form. For him the election of 1800 was a turning point because it marked a turning back to the true republican spirit of Within the Jeffersonian framework of assumptions and beliefs, three essential conditions were necessary to create and sustain such a republican political economy: a national government free from any taint of corruption, an unobstructed access to an ample supply of open land, and a relatively liberal international commercial order that would offer adequate foreign markets for America s flourishing agricultural surplus. Drew R. McCoy, The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America, 1980

7 The Marshall Court Adams Midnight Judges Impeachment attempts Ruled that Indian Tribes were separate of state gov ts, and fed gov t has ultimate authority over tribes Marbury v. Madison (1803) Judicial review

8 Partisan Squabbles Election of 1804 Federalist Conspiracy Burr vs. Hamilton The Duel Burr s Treason ~ended in his acquittal because of strict standards that could not be met

9 Foreign Affairs Barbary Pirates Tripoli ( ) Challenges to Neutrality Chesapeake Affair (1807) Embargo of 1807

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11 THE PRESIDENCY OF JAMES MADISON

12 Madison Administration Election of 1808 Commercial Warfare Non-intercourse Act of 1809 Macon s Bill No. 2 (1810) Napoleon s Deception

13 British American Tensions Causes: Impressment America s desire for Florida British trade policy blockading European trade w/ America Western Expansion Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) British incited Indians to attack American settlements in Indiana New States & Congressmen War Hawks Clay & Calhoun Declaration of War (June, 1812)

14 A Divided Nation Election of 1812 Declining Federalist Party Opposition to War New England Merchants, Old Democratic-Republicans, Federalists The War Invasion of Canada Perry s Navy Battle of the Thames Old Ironsides Chesapeake Campaign Burning of Washington Baltimore Saved (Ft. McHenry) Southern Campaign Battle of New Orleans The War of 1812

15 The War of 1812 Hartford Convention (1814) Death of the Federalists Treaty of Ghent ( ) Not one inch of territory ceded or lost America continued to expand westward as Indian defenses weakened

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17 US Gains Respect of Other Nations US accepts Canada as part of British Empire Decline and death of the Federalist Party Although precedent for nullification and secession set Continued decline and decimation of American Indians Blockade served as catalyst for industrial self-sufficiency Emergence of war heroes (Jackson, Harrison) Growth of Nationalism and Western Expansion Era of Good Feelings Legacy of the War

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