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1 UNIT FOUR: The Early Republic ( ) CHAPTER NINE: Launching a New Republic ( ) LESSON 9-1: Washington s Presidency, pgs ) Explain challenges Washington encountered as the first President 2) summarize Hamilton's plan to address the nation's economic and financial issues inaugurate(313)- to formally swear in or induct into office precedent(313)- an example that becomes standard practice John Jay(314)- first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court attorney general(314)- plan nation s top legal officer; today also the head of the Department of Justice cabinet(314)- group of executive department heads that serve as the President s chief advisers tariff(316)- tax on imported goods Federal Judiciary Act(316) law passed by the first congress that set up lower federal courts Washington's New Government 1. When was George Washington inaugurated as the first President of the United States? [313] April 30th, TRUE / FALSE: The Federal Judiciary act established the Supreme Court of the United States of America with its first nine members - known as majesties. [314, the original Supreme Count had 6 justices, current SC has 9 justices] 3. List the four departments Washington created for his cabinet and whom did he selected to head each department. departments [314] department responsibilities person appointed a. Secretary of State relations with other countries Thomas Jefferson b. Secretary of War nation's defense Henry Knox c. Secretary of Treasury nation's economy/financial security Alexander Hamilton d. Attorney General advise the government on legal matters Edmund Randolph The Nation's Finances 4. What was a major financial (related to money) problem facing the new American nation? [315] paying off war debts to France, Spain and the Netherlands (Holland) as well as to private individuals 5. What are the three parts of the Hamilton's economic plan to improve the financial condition of America? main points of plan [315] reasoning/benefits a. pay off all war debts - give other countries and business owners a more positive view of government b. raise government revenues - money coming into the government from taxes (like tariffs) c. create a national bank - to provide money to loan government and to grow business; print paper money 6. Draw lines matching the different views of how the constitution should be "interpreted" with their meanings. [317] a. loose interpretation (Hamilton) if not mentioned in the constitution and not illegal, you can do it b. strict interpretation (Jefferson) you can only do what is specifically mentioned in the constitution 7. TRUE / FALSE: The differences between Hamilton's and Jefferson's views on interpreting the constitution set the stage for the development of different political parties. 1

2 LESSON 9-2: Challenges to the New Government, pgs ) List examples of the new U.S. Government facing challenges at home and with other countries cede(321)- surrender or give up neutral(*)- not siding with any other country in dispute Northwest Territory(*)- area bounded by the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and the Great Lakes Battle of Fallen Timbers(320) battle between Native Americans and American forces Treaty of Greenville(321) treaty in which 12 Native American tribes ceded control of much of Ohio and Indiana to the United States government Whisky Rebellion(321) protest against the government s tax on whiskey by backcountry farmers French Revolution(322)- revolution overthrowing the government in France that began in 1787 and ended in violence and mass executions Jay s Treaty(323)- agreement that ended the dispute with Britain over American shipping during the French Revolution Pinckney s Treaty(323) treaty with Spain allowing U.S. commercial use of the Mississippi River Problems at Home [ ] 1. TRUE / FALSE: The United States struggled with the land area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River since the area was claimed not only Americans but by the British, Spanish and Native Americans. 2. TRUE / FALSE: Although American forces were defeated by the Native Americans in the Trans-Appalachian West twice, the army (led by Anthony Wayne) is finally victorious at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. [320] 3. Summarize the Treaty of Greenville in [321] Native Americans surrendered the areas of present day Ohio and ports/outposts in Illinois, Michigan and Indiana *the American victory at Fallen Timbers made the British more willing to agree to Jay's Treaty in 1794 [ 323] 4. What was the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794? [321] a tax on whiskey that farmers in Pennsylvania refused to pay 5. In leading a American army force into the area to put down the up-rising, what message does Washington send to the nation? [321] government had the will and power to enforce it's laws Problems at Home 6. TRUE / FALSE: The United States chose to stay neutral in the war between France and Britain because it feared the growing strength of Britain's army and navy? [322, needed to be friendly with both since we traded with both] 7. What was Britain doing that made it difficult for American to stay neutral? [322] seizing American ships/cargo 8. Draw lines matching the treaties America made with Britain and Spain to stay out of wars with them. [ ] a. Jay's Treaty (John Jay) British would leave Ohio Valley; pay damages for ships seized b. Pinckney's Treaty (Thomas Pinckney) Spain allowed travel of Mississippi; Florida border set, America could store goods in New Orleans without fee 2

3 LESSON 9-3: The Federalists in Charge, pgs ) describe national and international issues in the country faced after George Washington's term was completed foreign policy(328)- relations with governments of other nations political party(328)- group of people that tries to promote its ideas and influence in government aliens(331)- immigrants who are not yet citizens sedition(331)- stirring up rebellion against a government Federalists(*)- people who supported a strong national government; and heirs to the supporters of the ratification of the Constitution John Adams(328)- second President of the United States XYZ Affair(330) incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats Alien and Sedition Acts(331)- series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants states rights(331)- idea that the states have centain rights that the federal government cannot overrule nullification(332)- idea that a sate could cancel a federal law within a state Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions(332)- resolutions passed by Kentucky and Virginia in 1798 giving the states the right to declare acts of Congress null and void Washington Retires 1. List the first two United States political parties and their leaders, matching them up with their beliefs and supporters. political party [328] leaders a. Democratic-Republicans (Democrats) Thomas Jefferson and James Madison 1. limited government 3. opposed a National Bank 2. strict interpretation of the Constitution 4. economy should be based on farming supported by trades people and farmers b. Federalists John Adams and Alexander Hamilton 1. strong national government 3. favored a National Bank 2. loose interpretation of the Constitution 4. economy should be based on fishing and supported by lawyers, merchants, manufacturers manufacturing and clergy (religious leaders) John Adam's Administration 2. TRUE / FALSE: The election of 1796 was won by John Adams over Thomas Jefferson. [329, Jefferson was VP] 3. TRUE / FALSE: The main issue in the XYZ Affair was that the French demanded money before they would discuss stopping seizing American ships. [ , US started seizing French ships and putting money toward military] 4. TRUE / FALSE: The Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798 made it more difficult to trade with other countries. become a citizen; also made it illegal to speak out against and rally support again the government. [ ] [331] 5. TRUE / FALSE: The idea of State's Rights said that states had rights that national government couldn't violate. 3

4 CHAPTER TEN: The Jefferson Era ( ) LESSON 10-1: Jeffersonian Democracy, pgs ) Explain the unique way in which Jefferson became President. 2) Describe ways the government changed during Jefferson s Presidency. Thomas Jefferson(339)- third President of the United States, elected in 1801 Federalist(339)- political party of Hamilton and Adams; supported a strong central government Democratic Republican(339)- Jefferson s political party; feared a strong central government radical(340)- person who takes extreme political positions Judiciary Act of 1801(343)- law that let President John Adams fill federal judgeships with Federalists John Marshall(343)- chief justice of the Supreme Count appointed by President John Adams judicial review(343)- principle that states that the Supreme Court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution - in other words looking at laws and deciding if they are illegal (unconstitutional) or legal (constitutional). A New Party Come to Power 1. Who were the three main candidates for President in the 1800 election. [ ] a. John Adams, Federalist and incumbent or current President b. Thomas Jefferson, Democratic-Republican c. Aaron Burr, Democratic-Republican 2. In a case where there was a tie in the vote for President, how was the tie broken. [ ] House of Representatives votes to determine President (at the time, the House was controlled by the Federalists party) 3. Which Federalist lobbied strongly for Jefferson and against Aaron Burr... Alexander Hamilton. [ ] 4. TRUE / FALSE: After both Democratic-Republican candidates received 73 electoral college votes, the House of Representatives voted 36 times before Thomas Jefferson became the third, United States President. [341] 5. Burr, being the person with the second highest number of votes became... the Vice President. [341] Jefferson and Democracy 6. How did the court case of Marbury v. Madison demonstrate the principal of judicial review. a. it appointed William Marbury as a justice even though Madison wouldn't deliver his appointment papers b. it removed Thomas Jefferson from office as President because he refused to acknowledge Marbury [ ] c. Supreme Court ruled that a power it had been given under the Judiciary Act of 1789 was not constitutional 7. This ruling against the Judiciary Act of 1789 solidified that the Supreme Court was the final authority on... [343] a. the meaning of the constitution b. what the President was required to do c. requirements for being a justice in any court 4

5 LESSON 10-2: The Louisiana Purchase and Exploration, pgs ) describe how the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase. 2) list examples of ways the additional land affected the country. Meriwether Lewis(345)- army captain appointed by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory and lands west to the Pacific Ocean William Clark(345)- co-leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition Sacagawea(345)- Shoshone woman who assisted the Lewis and Clark expedition corps(346)- a number of people acting together for a similar purpose Louisiana Purchase(346)- American purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 Lewis and Clark Expedition(346)- group that explored the Louisiana Territory and lands west; also known as the Corps of Discovery Zebulon Pike(349)- leader of a southern expedition in the Louisiana Territory The Louisiana Purchase 1. What country controlled the rights to the area known as the Louisiana Territory (land west of the Mississippi River all the way to the Rocky Mountains) in 1800? France [346]...Spain had also returned New Orleans back to France 2. Why did the United States want to buy New Orleans from the French in 1802? control of New Orleans would allow goods to be shipped down the Mississippi, around Florida and up to east coast merchants (ns - easier than trying to get good through Appalachians) [346] 3. Why did Napoleon offer to sell the United States the Louisiana Territory for only 15 million dollars? (select two) a. need money to help fund an on-going war with the British [346] b. recognized that without having a large army in the area, the US would probably just take it and New Orleans c. did not realize how large the area actually was Exploring the Louisiana Territory 4. Who did Jefferson send to explore the Northern parts of the Louisiana Territory (1803)? Lewis and Clark [346] 5. What were two benefits of the northern expedition through the Louisiana Territory? [349] 1. no water route found through the continent 2. first maps made of the Territory 6. What Native American woman served as a guide for the exploration beginning in 1805? Sacagawea [348] 7. Who was sent to explore the southern parts of the Louisiana Territory (1806)? Zebulon Pike [349] 5

6 LESSON 10-3: The War of 1812, pgs OBJECTIVE(S): For the students to be able to: 1) describe events that led the U.S. into a second war against the British. 2) explain what effect the war of 1812 had on the United States. tribute(353)- payment in exchange for protection impressment(354)- the act of seizing by force; between 1803 and 1812, the British impressed, or kidnapped, about 6000 American sailors to work on British ships coercion(354)- practice of forcing someone to act in a certain way by use of pressure or threats Embargo Act of 1807(354)- law that forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports and closed American ports to British ships Tecumseh(354)- Shawnee chief who sought to stop the loss of Native American land to white settlers war hawk(355)- westerners who supported the War of 1812 Oliver Hazard Perry(356)- naval officer who led the U.S. victory over the British on Lake Erie in 1813 The Path to War 1. TRUE / FALSE: It was impossible for the United States to stay out of the war between France and England because both sides were stopping our ships while trying to trade with the other. The British were also kidnapping our sailors (impressment). [ , as many as 6000 U.S. sailors had been impressed into working on British ships] 2. Although the United States tried to peacefully stay out of the war by enacting the Embargo Act of 1807, this law was eventually repealed because it was mostly punishing what groups in America? American farmers and shippers [354] The War of Complete the list of reasons that President James Madison asked congress to declare war on the Britain in stopping United States ships/interfering with shipping 2. impressment of United States citizens [ ] 3. stirring up Native Americans against settlements in the frontier (ns, and supplying them with weapons) [ ] 4. TRUE / FALSE: The United States Navy, commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry, defeated British ships on Lake Erie. 5. TRUE / FALSE: After defeating Napoleon (France) in Europe, the British attacked Washington DC (August, 1814) and were quickly defeated by American forces there. [357, British burned the White House and Capital building then moved on toward Baltimore's Fort McHenry] 6. What poem/song was written on a British ship by a captive (lawyer, Francis Scott Key) during the bombardment of Fort McHenry? the Star Spangled Banner/National Anthem [357] 7. TRUE / FALSE: Americans, lead by Andrew Jackson, won the Battle of New Orleans forcing the Treaty of Ghent to be signed ending the war. [ , treaty had already been signed back in Europe before the battle] 8. TRUE / FALSE: The War of 1812 ended with no land areas gained or lost and no resolution to the trade disputes. The war did increase pride/faith in America to defend itself. The war also increased manufacturing and weakened the fighting power of Native American groups in the Ohio Valley. [358] 6

7 CHAPTER ELEVEN: National and Regional Growth ( ) LESSON 11-1: Early Industry and Inventions, pgs ) identify factors that led to the industrial revolution 2) explain how major inventions changed the lives of Americans in the 1800s Samuel Slater(366)- builder of the first water-powered textile mill in America factory system(366)- method of production using many workers and machines in one building Lowell mills(367)- textile mills located in the factory town of Lowell, Massachusetts; entire process under one roof Robert Fulton(368)- inventor of America s first widely successful steamboat Peter Cooper(368)- builder of America s first successful steam-powered locomotive Samuel F. B. Morse(368)- inventor of the telegraph threshing machine(369)- person who takes extreme political positions mechanical reaper(369)- a device that cuts grain Industrial Revolution(365)- the economic changes of the late 1700s, when manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work The Industrial Revolution 1. TRUE / FALSE: The Industrial Revolution is the name for the period when manufacturing changed from handmade items to machine-made, mass-produced goods. Life shifted for many Americans from farm to city life. [365] 2. List reasons why the Industrial Revolution had gotten its start in the colonies. 1. Samuel Slater secretly brought the plans for textile mills from England; build first mill in Rhode Island in farm families were ready to switch from the hard work and low pay of farms to cities and factory jobs [366] 3. the War of 1812 and the British blockade forced American business people to invest in new business at home rather than trade and shipping with other countries 3. Why was New England and the other northern colonies a great starting place for factories? 1. swiftly moving rivers to provide power for factories 2. rivers and ships provided transportation for raw materials to in and finished products to be shipped out 3. a willing work force [366] 4. TRUE / FALSE: Mill workers worked few hours on a flexible schedule. (see illustration pg. 367) long, structured 5. What method of manufacturing did Eli Whitney perfect that made making a large number of products faster, made them easier to repair and required less skilled workers? interchangeable parts [367] 6. TRUE / FALSE: The inventions of the steamboat, steam locomotive and telegraph made transporting people, goods and information much easier and faster. Inventions like the steel plow and mechanical thresher and reaper made farm work faster and more efficient. [ ] 7

8 LESSON 11-2: Plantation and Slavery Spread, pgs ) explain how the factory system and the invention of the cotton gin impacted life in the Southern States cotton gin(373)- machine that made cleaning the seeds from cotton faster Eli Whitney(373)- inventor of the cotton gin Nat Turner(376)- leader of an 1831 slave rebellion in virginia spirituals(377)- religion folk songs Plantation and Slavery 1. List four ways that life in the South changed after Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin. 1. started a movement west to get more land to grow more cotton 2. people in the Southern states stopped growing food crops and grew mainly cotton 3. Native Americans in the south lost their lands 4. slavery became more important than ever [374, illustration with caption pg. 275] 2. TRUE / FALSE: By 1840 most white families in the south had slaves. [374, only about 1/3 had slaves] 3. TRUE / FALSE: Most families without slaves in the south supported slavery because they hoped at some point that they would be able to afford some slaves and be able to grow more crops. [374] 4. List examples of the hardships that slaves had to endure. long hours, harsh treatment/beatings, family could be sold/split, ns - poor living conditions [374, 376] 5. Who was Nat Turner and what is he known for? slave who led a rebellion in Virginia that resulted in the killing of 55 whites. He was later caught and hanged. [376] 8

9 LESSON 11-3: Nationalism and Sectionalism, pgs OBJECTIVE(S): For the students to be able to: 1) identify factors that promoted national unity in the early 1800s. 2) explain how economic differences increased sectionalism. nationalism(379)- a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one s country protective tariff(379)- a tax on imported goods that protects a nation's businesses from foreign competition Henry Clay(379)- nationalist Representative from Kentucky American System(379)- plan introduced in 1815 to make America economically self-sufficient James Monroe(380)- fifth president of the United States, who proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine sectionalism(381)- loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country Erie Canal(381)- waterway that connected New York City with Buffalo, New York Missouri Compromise(382)- laws enacted in 1820 to maintain balance of power between slave and free states Monroe Doctrine(384)- U.S. policy opposing European interference in the Western hemisphere Nationalism Unites the Country 1. TRUE / FALSE: After the War of 1812 there was great deal of pride in what America had accomplished. The idea of loyalty to your country and a desire to protect it is called Nationalism. 2. The goal of the American System plan was to make the country economically independent. List the main three parts of Henry Clay's American System plan that were introduced into congress by James Madison in [379] 1. establish a protective tariff on all imported goods - encourage people to buy less expensive American products 2. establish a national bank - grow business without relying on foreign money 3. improve the nation's transportation system - make moving American goods and materials easier Sectional Tensions Increase 3. TRUE / FALSE: Sectionalism is just another name for Nationalism. [381] support/loyalty for an area of a country 4. TRUE / FALSE: The increasing demand and value for cotton increased sectionalism in the United States. This fueled the need for slaves to help with cash crops in the south while the opinion that slavery was wrong continued to grow in the north (where slaves were not as important). [381] 5. If Missouri were to join the union as a slave state, it would upset the balance between the eleven slave states and eleven free states. How did the Missouri Compromise help settle the issue? [382] 1. Maine - admitted to the United States as a free state Missouri - admitted to the United States as a slave state 2. a line at the 36 30' (minute) latitude line would determine... future state status - above free, below slave National Boundaries and Foreign Affairs 6. TRUE / FALSE: The United States was able to acquire Florida from Spain since they struggled in controlling the pirates and Native Americas there. The Adams-Otis Treat of 1819 gave control of Florida to America. [ ] 7. In his 1823 State of the Union address (speech), President James Monroe warned European countries to stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere (North America, Latin America and South America). This position against European activity in the West became known as the... Monroe Doctrine. [385] 9

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