1 Unit 3 SSUSH6 Analyze the challenges faced by the first five presidents and how they r esponded. a. Examine the presidency of Washington, including the precedents he set.
2 George Washington, President George Washington was elected the first president of the United States. He established important patterns for future presidents to follow. Developments that altered the course of the history of the U.S. government took place during his administration. Washington favored nonintervention in Europe and avoided siding with France against Great Britain. Instead, the United States persuaded Britain to forgive many pre- Revolutionary debts and to drop certain restrictions on American trade with British colonies in the Americas. This ushered in an era of booming trade with Britain.
3 The Whiskey Rebellion Washington s new government persuaded Congress to pass taxes on liquor to help pay the states debt from the Revolutionary War. The tax hit the small whiskey-makers in western settlements particularly hard because they made liquor using excess crops of grain in order to make it easier to transport. The Whiskey Rebellion resulted when, up and down areas west of the Appalachians, armed violence broke out as farmers frightened and attacked federal tax collectors. George Washington led a large militia force into the western counties and put down the rebellion. Washington s response showed his constitutional authority to enforce the law and that if Americans did not like a law, the way to change it was to petition Congress peacefully
4 The Administration Washington was the most influential and popular figure in the United States. He increased the prestige of his administration by making Thomas Jefferson his secretary of state and Alexander Hamilton his secretary of treasury. Despite their talents and reputations, Jefferson and Hamilton had significant differences of opinion about the legitimate power of the United States government. Jefferson believed that the national government must limit its power to those areas described by the Constitution, while Hamilton wanted to expand the power of the government to stabilize the nation and
5 The end of an era When Washington announced he would not seek a third term as president, the two men and their supporters attacked one another and competed to replace him. Things got so bad that, in his farewell address, Washington warned about the dangers of political parties (factions).
6 Early Political Parties Political parties had their origin in the differences of opinion between Washington s Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, and Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton. Both felt very differently about the organization of the new nation and how the nation should be run, including the constitutionality of a national bank. Hamilton and his political supporters later became known as Federalists. They wanted to expand the power of the government to stabilize the nation and its economy. Jefferson s supporters came to be known as the Democratic-Republicans and believed that the national government must limit its power to only those areas described by the Constitution.
7 SSUSH6 Analyze the challenges faced by the first five presidents and how they responded. b. Explain the presidency of John Adams including the Sedition Act and its influence on the election of 1800.
8 John Adams, 2 nd President George Washington s voluntary retirement from the presidency after serving two terms in office left the nation divided over who should be elected the second President of the United States. The election of 1796 was a bitter contest between John Adams, a Federalist, and Thomas Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican. Adams won by only a margin in the Electoral College. George Washington s elections in 1789 and 1792 were both unanimous. Under the provisions of the Constitution as it was originally written, the candidate who received the highest number of votes (over 50%) in the Electoral College would be the President and the candidate with the second highest number of votes would serve as the Vice President. This format quickly presented problems in the 1796 election. The Federalist John Adams became the President and the leading Democratic- Republican, Thomas Jefferson, became the Vice President.
9 Alien and Sedition Acts To subdue Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republican opposition, the Federalist controlled Congress and Federalist John Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws increased citizenship requirements so that Jefferson, and the Democratic-Republicans, could not receive support from the immigrant community. The citizenship requirement for the naturalization process was extended from five to fourteen years. The law also attempted to stop any criticism of the Federalists by limiting free speech and press rights. The Alien provision of the policy gave the executive branch the power to deport any immigrant aliens subjectively deemed as dangerous. The Sedition policy made it a crime for United States citizens to conspire against legal measures passed by the government, interfere with the business of government officials, or to promote insurrection. Of greater impact was the provision in the law that made it a crime to write, publish, or speak anything of a false, scandalous and malicious nature about the government or elected officials. Democratic-Republicans, with their propaganda filled newspapers and pamphlets, were the target of these laws.
10 John Adam s Legacy Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican James Madison reacted to the Alien and Sedition Acts. They argued in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions that states could refuse to enforce federal laws they opposed. Both states passed laws in their state level legislatures in 1798 condemning the Alien and Sedition Acts as violating constitutional rights. Virginia and Kentucky claimed the Constitution itself was an agreement among states and therefore the states should assess whether the laws passed at the national level had overstepped their boundaries. This was the beginning of the states rights concept. The country's growing economic problems, increasing taxes, and unpopular Alien and Sedition Acts hurt John Adams' chances of re-election in The election was heated and the political rivalry between the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans intensified. Hamilton's followers questioned Adams' resolve against France and fractured their own Federalist Party.
11 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson tied with his Democratic-Republican partner for the Vice Presidency, Aaron Burr. Each man had 73 Electoral College votes, thus throwing the election to the House of Representatives. This was the procedure outlined by the Constitution in the case of an Electoral College tie. The House of Representative was controlled by the Federalist Party at the time of the election and was given the responsibility of deciding the election. Their choice was between two Democratic-Republicans, Thomas Jefferson or Aaron Burr. Alexander Hamilton was still a very influential Federalist and when the House of Representatives was not able to secure a decisive vote after thirty-five ballots, the party turned to him for direction. Although both choices were Democratic-Republican candidates, Hamilton much preferred Thomas Jefferson over Aaron Burr. Hamilton and Burr were both from New York and had deep distaste for one another. Hamilton believed Jefferson to have more character than Burr and would be more suitable for the office of President based on his personal reputation. The Federalist legislators in the House of Representatives followed Hamilton's lead and voted for Jefferson instead of Burr.
12 SSUSH6 Analyze the challenges faced by the first five presidents and how they responded. c. Explore Jefferson s expansion of presidential power including the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Terr itory.
13 Thomas Jefferson, 3 rd President Thomas Jefferson led the nation's Democratic- Republican Party and was a vocal critic of the Federalists' push for a stronger central government at the expense of the states. Once Jefferson was elected President in the contentious election of 1800, he was responsible for defending and leading the nation toward prosperity. Although his political philosophy leaned toward a decentralized federal government, he actually expanded the power of the presidency during his two terms in office.
14 A different type of president Jefferson was the first President to take the oath of office in the new national capital in Washington, DC. He tried to set a simplistic tone for his presidency by having a more informal inauguration without much fanfare. Jefferson did highlight the need for the country s political divisions to heal and for both political parties to move forward. A famous line from Jefferson s first inaugural speech is, We are all Republicans we are all Federalists. Jefferson served two terms as President of the United States, during which he dealt with many domestic and foreign policy issues.
15 Constitutional Interpretation An area of conflict between the Federalists and the Democratic- Republicans was how to appropriately interpret the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans, like Thomas Jefferson, believed in strict construction of the Constitution. Supporters of strict construction believe that the Constitution must be interpreted by the literal content of the document. Only powers explicitly listed in the Constitution are allowed to be claimed by the federal government. This narrow interpretation of the Constitution restricts the power of the federal government and preserves more power for the states. In contrast, Federalists supported loose construction of the Constitution. This approach to constitutional interpretation claims that there are implied powers granted to the federal government in the Constitution. These powers may not be explicitly listed but are still granted to the federal government through the elastic clause in Article 1 of the Constitution. The clause grants Congress the power to pass all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying out the business of the government. Federalists argued that this vague wording purposely left implied powers to the government in the event of unforeseen circumstances.
16 Louisiana Purchase The purchase of the Louisiana territory from France is an example of Thomas Jefferson s expansion of presidential power through loose construction- even though he claimed to be a strict constructionist. Louisiana was originally a part of New France. However, the region had been subject to much transition and had changed hands several times. At the time of Jefferson s election, Louisiana was ruled by Spain but was home to many American merchants and farmers. a
17 Louisiana Purchase In the early 1800s, President Thomas Jefferson sent James Monroe to France to negotiate the purchase of the important port city of New Orleans. At the time, the French ruler Napoleon controlled New Orleans and much of the land west of the Mississippi River.
18 New Orleans- A port city
19 Louisiana purchase In 1803, Napoleon agreed to sell to the United States not only New Orleans but also the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million. As a result, the United States nearly doubled in geographic area.
20 Lewis and Clark Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore Louisiana and the western lands all the way to the Pacific Ocean. On their 16-month expedition, Lewis and Clark charted the trails west, mapped rivers and mountain ranges, wrote descriptions and collected samples of unfamiliar animals and plants, and recorded facts and figures about the various Native American tribes and customs west of the Mississippi River.
22 SSUSH6 Analyze the challenges faced by the first five presidents and how they responded. d. Explain James Madison s presidency in relation to the War of 1812 and the war s significance in the development of a national identity.
23 James Madison, 4 th President James Madison had many roles in the development of the United States. He was the principal author of the United States Constitution and contributed essays to the Federalist Papers supporting ratification. Madison also served as Thomas Jefferson s Secretary of State. When Madison was elected, foreign policy and the mounting tension with Great Britain were critical issues that required his attention. The challenge he faced was how to avoid another costly war with Great Britain but still increase the United States economic growth through international trade.
24 In 1812, America declared war on Great Britain, which was already at war with France. Among the causes of this war, four stand out. First, Americans objected to restrictions Britain was enforcing to prevent neutral American merchants from trading with the French. Background
25 Causes Second, Americans were outraged by the British policy of impressment. Under this policy, thousands of American sailors were forced against their will to serve in the British navy after their merchant ships were captured at sea.
26 Causes Third, Americans suspected the British were giving military support to Native Americans so they would fight to keep Americans from settling lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
27 Causes Fourth, Americans wished to drive the British out of North America altogether by conquering Canada while the British army was fighting the French in Europe.
28 Battle of New Orleans The Battle of New Orleans was the last major battle of the War of The fight took place on January 8, 1815 when 7,500 British soldiers marched against 4,500 U.S. troops led by General Andrew Jackson. Jackson defeated the British just 30 minutes, halting their plans to attack New Orleans and establishing himself as a national military hero. The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, had been signed two weeks before the battle but the news had not yet crossed the Atlantic.
29 Results A major result of the War of 1812 was the end of all U.S. military hostility with Great Britain. Never again would Britain and the United States wage war over diplomacy, trade, territory, or any other kind of dispute. America s army and navy were firmly established as worthy opponents of any European military force. The U.S. military s achievements in the War of 1812 also served to heighten nationalist sentiments.
31 SSUSH6 Analyze the challenges faced by the first five presidents and how they responded. e. Explain James Monroe s presidency in relation to the Monroe Doctr ine.
32 What was the Monroe Doctrine? In 1823, President James Monroe warned the nations of Europe not to meddle in the politics of North and South America. When a group of European countries planned to help one another recapture American colonies that had gained independence, Monroe announced that the United States would prevent European nations from interfering with independent American countries.
33 Monroe Doctrine Continued Further, Monroe said the United States would remain neutral in wars between European nations and their American colonies, but, if battles took place in the New World, the United States would view such battles as hostile actions against the United States. The Monroe Doctrine defined an aspect of U.S. foreign policy to which America still holds today.
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