By Kidane Alemayehu. Global Alliance for Justice The Ethiopian Cause (GAJEC)

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1 By Kidane Alemayehu Global Alliance for Justice The Ethiopian Cause (GAJEC) 1

2 Ethiopian Patriots 2

3 SUMMARY 1) The effects of the Italian Fascists war crimes in Ethiopia; 2) The special relationship between the Vatican and the Fascists; 3) The role of the Vatican in the Fascist aggression in Ethiopia; 4) The lack of UN recognition of the Fascist war crimes in Ethiopia; 5) The Vatican s and Italian Government s Action so far; 6) Objectives, strategy and activities of the Global Alliance for Justice - The Ethiopian Cause; 7) Collaboration with the Ethiopian Patriotic Association; 8) Conclusion. 3

4 Photos showing evidences of the Fascists war crimes in Ethiopia 4

5 1.Effects of Italian Fascists War Crimes in Ethiopia: (a) Ethiopia s Immense Losses: 1 million Ethiopians killed including: 30,000 murdered within three days in Addis Ababa alone; Over 300 monks and clergy killed at Debre Libanos monastery; Two Ethiopian Orthodox church bishops: Abune Petros and Abune Michael killed; 2,000 Ethiopian Orthodox Churches destroyed; 525,000 homes destroyed; 14 million animals killed; An environmental disaster from the poison gas sprayed throughout Ethiopia. 5

6 (b) The Main Purposes of the Fascists: (i)revenge for the Italian defeat at Adowa: In his famous letter to the League of Nations, Emperor Haile Selassie I had stated: Italy is determined not to finalize the issue peacefully. Her aim is to spill a lot of blood for a revenge of Adowa. (ii)colonization of Ethiopia. 6

7 c) Weapons used by the Fascists: Internationally illegal poison gas sprayed by numerous airplanes; Tanks, bombs, and other regular weapons; Emperor Haile Selassie had stated: Italian airplanes came in drones of 9, 15, and 18 to drop rains of poison gas on people, animals, rivers and streams as well as pastures. His Imperial Majesty had further stated: The picture of many thousands of soldiers as well as rural people including women and children who were burned to death by the poison gas used by the enemy is still etched in our mind. 7

8 2. The Special Relationship Between the Fascists and the Vatican Source: Avro Manhattan: The Vatican in World Politics (1949) Prior to 1922, the Vatican and the Fascists were adversaries. The Vatican had a so-called Catholic Party. In1922, the Vatican led by Pope Pius XI and the Fascists headed by Mussolini formed a strong partnership. Pope Pius XI dissolved the Catholic Party and paved the way for the Fascists to take control of Italy. 8

9 On December 20, 1926, Pope Pius XI declared: Mussolini is the man sent by Providence. In October 1928, the Lateran Treaty was signed between Pope Pius XI and Mussolini according to which The Vatican was recognized as an independent sovereign state. The Fascists also provided a substantial amount of money to shore up the ailing bank serving The Vatican. The main reason for the symbiotic relationship between the Pope and the Fascist Duce was their mutual dislike for democracy, socialism, and human rights. 9

10 Avro Manhattan stated: It was the alliance of these two men, Pius XI and Mussolini, that influenced so greatly the social and political pattern, not only of Italy, but also of the rest of Europe in the years between the two world wars. 10

11 3. The Vatican s Role in the Fascist Aggression Against Ethiopia Mussolini s main ally in his aggression against Ethiopia was, therefore, The Vatican s Pope Pius XI. Manhattan states: Thus the Church became the religious weapon of the Fascist State; while the Fascist State became the secular arm of the Church. Pope Pius XI s support to Mussolini was effective in arousing the enthusiasm of the Italian population for the war against Ethiopia as well as, above all, to influence the proceedings of the League of Nations itself by indirectly making the Catholic representatives of the many Catholic countries who were members of the League understand that they should not vote against Fascist Italy. 11

12 Photo of a Vatican/Catholic clergy blessing the Fascist army and weapons 12

13 Pope Pius XI considered Italy s invasion of Ethiopia as a defensive war. When the Italian occupation of Ethiopia was achieved, practically the whole world condemned Mussolini, all except the Pope. (quoted by Manhattan from Teeling, The Pope in Politics ). On May 12, 1936, Pope Pius XI expressed his jubilation by stating: The triumphant joy of an entire, great and good people over a place which, it is hoped and intended, will be an effective contribution and prelude to the true place in Europe and the World. The Pope s joy was expressed in a more cogent and graphic declaration by the Archbishop of Torano with the following words: The war against Ethiopia should be considered as a holy war, a crusade (as Italian victory would) open Ethiopia, a country of infidels and schismatics, to the expansion of the Catholic Faith. 13

14 4. The UN and The Fascist War Crime in Ethiopia There is a need for an effort to ensure that the UN includes the Fascist war crime in Ethiopia in its historic canals. 14

15 5. The Vatican s and Italian Government s Action so far No action so far by The Vatican. Not even an apology. *Repeated apology to the Jews. *In process of elevating Pope Pius XII to sainthood. Please see an article entitled: Why is The Vatican Adding Insult to Injury on Ethiopia by KA. 15

16 5. The Vatican s and Italian Government s Action so far cont The Italian Government s Compensation for the Fascist War Crimes in Ethiopia: *A miniscule compensation of 6 million in 1947 which was used for the construction of the Koka Dam; *$5 billion compensation to Libya for having been colonized by Italy and the deployment of 20,000 Libyans in the Fascist aggression on Ethiopia. 16

17 6. Objectives, Strategy, and Actions by the Global Alliance for Justice The Ethiopian Cause (GJAEC) ethiopia.org 6.1 Basic objective: to achieve justice for the Ethiopian people for the war crimes committed by the Italian Fascists with the complicit support of the Vatican. 6.2 Strategy: (a) Initial focus on the achievement of a Vatican apology to the Ethiopian people as well as restitution of items looted by Fascists from Ethiopia; (b) The inclusion of the Fascists war crimes in UN records; (c) Adequate reparation by the Italian government to the Ethiopian people. 17

18 6.3 Actions by GAJEC: (a)letters to the Vatican requesting a formal apology to the Ethiopian people; (b) International appeal posted on ethiopia.org asking for a formal apology by the Vatican to the Ethiopian people; over 2,500 people from over 30 countries have signed so far; (c) Restitution cases with the help of Dr. Richard Pankhurst and Dr. Jon Levy: (i) Tsehay airplane; (ii) Manuscripts looted by Fascist Encrico Ceruli; (iii) Two huge documents looted from Debre Libanos monastery; (d) Enhancing awareness through website and various media including radio (e.g. VOA); (e) Initiating contact with the Ethiopian Patriotic Association. 18

19 Photos of Sylvia, and Richard Pankhurst 19

20 7. Collaboration with the Ethiopian Patriotic Association (EPA) GAJEC has requested EPA s support ; appreciation of the positive Discussions; EPA is communicating with the concerned Ministry; 20

21 8.Conclusion 8.1 The huge, extensive Fascist war crime perpetrated against Ethiopia with the complicit support of The Vatican is still calling for justice; 8.2 As a Christian entity, The Vatican should apologize to the Ethiopian people for its complicity with the Fascist war crimes; 8.3 The Vatican as well as the Italian Government should undertake their responsibilities in terms of restitution as well as adequate reparations; 21

22 8.Conclusion Cont. 8.4 All people who believe in human rights including Ethiopians should strive for the achievement of the long outstanding justice to the Ethiopian people; 8.5 A special call for action is conveyed to the Eth Patriotic Association, the media, academic and other relevant institutions as well as, in particular, the youth to join hands in fighting for the Ethiopian Cause. 22

23 Ethiopian Patriots 23