EOC Preparation: WWII and the Early Cold War Era

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1 EOC Preparation: WWII and the Early Cold War Era

2 WWII Begins Adolf Hitler and Nazi Party were elected to power and took over the German government Hitler held a strict rule over Germany and set his sights on other countries in Europe 1936: Hitler invades the Rhineland Only a few years later: takes control of Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia

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4 WWII Begins Instead of using military force to halt Hitler, British and French leaders used a policy of appeasement Allowed Hitler to keep the areas he had invaded, in the hopes to appease him and stop any future aggression. Did not work: Hitler invaded Poland in 1939

5 Stalin and the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin-took over the Communist Party and became the leader of the Soviet Union Brutal leader: murdered rivals and political opponents No political opposition Little freedom for the people

6 Mussolini in Italy Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922 Fascist His government controlled all aspects of business and politics No political opposition allowed under his rule 1935: Mussolini invades Abyssinia in North Africa (Ethiopia) League of Nations condemned these actions, Italy left League. Italy and Germany form an alliance

7 Tojo in Japan Japan began expanding it s territory in the 1920s Parts of China, Korea, Eastern Asia Hideki Tojo became PM in 1941 Controlled government despite emperor rule Continued to invade and conquer areas of Asia Formed an alliance with Italy and German

8 Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan

9 US Actions During Early WWII Years Neutral Feelings of isolationism persisted among the public Neutrality Act (1935) Prohibited selling of weapons to warring nations Almost passed an amendment to the Constitution that would required a national vote before going to war.

10 Hitler s Aggression Continues Sept. 1 st, 1939: Hitler invades Poland officially starting WWII in Europe Spring 1940: conquered Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, and then France Hitler forces France to sign an armistice (truce) allowing half of the country to be under German control with the rest to be controlled by French pro-german government (Vichy regime)

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12 Britain s Resistance Hitler s air force launched attacks against Great Britain Meant to destroy British air force so that Hitler could cross English Channel and launch an invasion July-Oct Winston Churchill-British leader Hitler eventually gives up plan to invade

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15 The United States Enters WWII FDR reelected (3 rd term!) in 1940 Knows neutrality won t work for much longer Lend-Lease Act 1941 President can send aid to any nation whose defense was considered vital to US national security Foreign countries could pay for aid later

16 Pearl Harbor US saw Japanese aggression and used an embargo (will not ship certain items to a country) to try and stop them Japan decided they would use force to take what they needed (specifically oil and steel) Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese airplanes began bombing fleet at Pearl Harbor, HI

17 Allies Soviet Union Great Britain United States The Big Three Stalin Churchill Roosevelt

18 Issues Among Allies Soviet Union wanted to invade Western Europe US and Great Britain didn t want to invade W. Europe until they had control of North Africa and Suez Canal (Egypt) After gaining control of North Africa, Churchill and Roosevelt met and decided to invade Italy

19 Issues Among Allies Stalin upset with Allies for being unwilling to attack western front Stalin held off the Germans along the eastern front Tehran Conference-all Allied leaders met in Dec Stalin pushed for an attack in France Great Britain and US agreed: General Dwight D. Eisenhower made the Supreme Allied Commander of Operation Overlord

20 The Beginning of the End D-Day Invasion-June 6, 1944 Invasion of beaches in Normandy, France Allied forces were able to fight their way into Paris (Aug. 25, 1944) and liberated the city

21 Victory in Europe Allies met in February at Yalta Conference 1945 Made a plan for post-war world Stalin would declare war on Japan Would also allow free elections and a democratic government in eastern European countries Churchill and Roosevelt would allow USSR to keep land in Poland and have control some islands and Chinese land in the East

22 Victory in Europe USSR lost the most people Half of war reparations from Germany Germany divided up into 4 zones Allies would control each zone United Nations would be created as a permanent peace-keeping organization Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945 Germany surrendered ending the war V-E Day: Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945

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24 War in the Pacific: Battle of Midway June 1942 US planes able to attack Japanese carriers Japanese had hoped to finish off American fleet in an attempt to win the war

25 After winning the Battle of Midway, US forces began island hopping Attack and conquer one group of islands, then move on to the next Want to end by attacking and conquering Japan US General Douglas MacArthur retook the Philippines from Japanese Admiral Nimitz won battles at Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa Island Hopping

26 War in the Pacific Atomic bomb US began developing this under the name Manhattan Project Headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer July 16, 1945 weapon tested in New Mexico

27 War in the Pacific Harry S. Truman (new president) When discussing politics with allied leaders, policy of unconditional surrender was determined Truman authorized the bombing of Japan due to Japan not immediately agreeing to surrender

28 The Atomic Bomb August 6, 1945 B29 Bomber, Enola Gay dropped first A-bomb on Hiroshima August 9, 1945 Second A-bomb dropped on Nagasaki Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945 V-J Day (Victory over Japan)

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31 The War at Home FDR created the War Production Board (WPB) to help switch America s economy from peacetime to wartime industries Withholding income tax: government required employers to withhold taxes from paychecks and give it to gov. immediately War bond drives- promote the purchase of bonds These were basically loans to the government

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33 Women and the War Victory gardens and rationing Send food to troops, conserve anything that you can Rosie the Riveter Women leaving the home and entering workforce while men are at war

34 Women and the War 275,000 women served in the military Women s Army Corps was the largest area where women served Did nearly everything except in combat

35 African Americans and the War 1 million African Americans volunteered/draft ed Originally, not allowed to be in combat roles, eventually this changed Tuskegee Airmenall black squadron of fighter pilots

36 Native Americans & Mexicans in the Navajo language used to deliver secret messages Code Talkers Mexican soldiers won 17 Congressional Medals of Honor War

37 Japanese Americans and the War In 1943 Japanese Americans allowed to join military The 442 nd was an extremely decorated military unit Executive Order 9066 Feb. 19, 1942 Japanese Americans no longer allowed on/near military facilities 100,000 Japanese Americans forced from homes and business and placed in internment camps. Supreme Court ruled that this was Constitutional

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40 Nuremberg Trials Began in Nov following atrocities of Holocaust You are responsible for your own actions, not just following orders

41 The Beginning of the Cold War Tensions rose between the Allied countries following WWII The new technologies and innovations that were created during WWII led to the nuclear arms race between the US and USSR Who can develop the most powerful military

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