USSR United Soviet Socialist Republic

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3 USSR United Soviet Socialist Republic United States Great Britain FDR Joseph Stalin Winston Churchill Truman

4 Major Leaders of the War Franklin D. Roosevelt (Allied Power) U.S. President Elected in 1933 during the Great Depression and leads until his death in Enters war after attack on Pearl Harbor Dies three weeks before the end of the war

5 Major Leaders of the War Harry Truman (Allied Power) U.S. President after the death of President Roosevelt Important at the end of the war by dropping atomic bomb and giving aid to worn-torn countries

6 Major Leaders of the War Winston Churchill (Allied Power) Prime Minister of Great Britain Strong stand against Hitler His speeches kept British morale high

7 Major Leaders of the War Joseph Stalin (Allied Power) Soviet Union (USSR) Dictator Led communist party Ruled for 30 years by fear and terror Helped defeat Nazi Germany

8 The Big Three Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill

9 Italy Germany Japan Hideki Tojo Adolf Hitler Mussolini Hirohito

10 Major Leaders of the War Adolf Hitler (Axis Power) Fascist dictator of Germany Leader of the Nazi Party Rose to power through propaganda Started the Third Reich (Reich = empire in German) Preached hatred of Jews

11 Major Leaders of the War Benito Mussolini (Axis Power) Fascist dictator of Italy Aligned with Hitler Fired by King of Italy in 1943 but is reinstated days later after Hitler takes control of Italy

12 Major Leaders of the War Hideki Tojo (Axis Power) Japanese General leader of the military Ordered attack on Pearl Harbor Executed at the end of the war

13 Major Leaders of the War Hirohito Emperor of Japan Viewed as a divine figure (God gave him the power to rule) Japan s military gained political influence during his rule

14 Causes of WWII 1. Political Instability and Economic problems in Europe from World War I. - World wide Depression - Germany s high World War I debt (remember Treaty of Versailles and reparations) - High inflation the value of money goes down over time. - Massive unemployment

15 Causes of WWII 2. Rise of Fascism: a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator. Germany Italy Japan Dictators of these countries became known as the Axis Powers

16 Extreme nationalism and racism Individual freedoms are denied Censorship/ government controls the media Fascism What is it? Use of violence and terror Strong military Government controls the economy

17 3. Isolationism in Europe and the United States The United States and other European countries did not want to get involved in other government s disputes because of the Great Depression and the legacy of World War I Appeasement = giving in to Hitler s actions to avoid war

18

19 1. German Invasion of Poland: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg - Lightning War swift military offense, usually combining land and air forces

20 Germany invaded Poland, setting off war in Europe The Soviet Union also invaded Poland and the Baltic nations NAZI SOVIET PACT:1939, Germany and Soviet Union signed a pact to invade and control Northern and Eastern European nations.

21 German troops marching into Warsaw, Poland (1939)

22 2. Germany invaded France and captured Paris (1940) Italy invades France from the South and Germany takes over from the North France Surrenders

23 SOME FRENCH OPPOSED THE NAZIS and the Vichy Gov. Examples of groups organizing French resistance from Germany The Free French The Maquis General Charles DeGaulle

24 Now Britain Is All Alone!

25 3. Battle of Britain (1940) Germany bombed London. Massive air strikes between the two countries Germany was defeated Also known as: Operation Sea Lion

26 Battle of Britain excerpt:

27 4. Lend Lease Act United States gave war supplies to Britain At the start of the war, the United States remained neutral; however, were closely allied with Great Britain The United States gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean

28 5. German Invasion of the Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa Hitler s Biggest Mistake (Hitler breaks his treaty with Stalin)

29 5. German Invasion of the Soviet Union Hitler s biggest mistake because now he is fighting on TWO FRONTS!

30 Operation Barbarossa: June 22, ,000,000 German soldiers. 3,400 tanks.

31 6. Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) Known as: A date which will live in infamy

32

33 Pearl Harbor

34 USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor

35 Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Pilot

36 U.S. Enters World War II After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, the US declared war on Japan, so Germany declared war on the US In response, the US declared war on Germany.

37 Pearl Harbor Memorial 2,887 Americans Dead! I fear all we have done is awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve. - Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

38 Stalin switches sides & the U.S enters the war. The Big Three is now created Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin

39 7. Battle of Midway June 4-7, 1942 US Navy destroyed Japan s naval strength Japan s navy never recovered and was on the defensive after this battle. Turning point of the war in the Pacific

40 Battle of Midway June 4-7, 1942

41 8. Battle of Stalingrad (July February 1943) Long battle between Germany and USSR Deadliest battle of WWII 1.5 million casualties. Germany lost Turning point of the war in Eastern Europe

42 9. D-Day - Operation Overlord (Allied invasion of Europe June 6, 1944) Led by General Eisenhower and the allied forces

43 D-Day (June 6, 1944) Allied troops ferried across the English Channel and sailed from Britain to the beaches of Normandy, France Germans retreat Beginning of the end of war in Western Europe V-E Day: May 8, 1945

44 German Prisoners Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944)

45 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki In 1945, President Truman authorizes the United States to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. The Manhattan Project led by Robert Oppenheimer was responsible for creating the atomic bomb

46 Hiroshima August 6, 1945 Little Boy 70,000 killed immediately. 48,000 buildings. destroyed. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

47 Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Fat Man 40,000 killed immediately. 60,000 injured. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

48 Japan Surrenders August 15, 1945 (V-J Day)

49 Japanese A-Bomb Survivors

50

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52 Outcomes of World War II 1. After the war, Britain and France were broke 2. Establishment of two major world powers: The United States and the U.S.S.R.

53 3. War Crime Trials The Nuremberg War Trials: Crimes Against Humanity Japanese War Crimes Trials Trial against SS German Officers General Hideki Tojo

54 Those that did not make it to trial The Führer s Bunker Cyanide & Pistols Mussolini & His Mistress, Claretta Petacci Are Hung in Milan, 1945 Mr. & Mrs. Hitler

55 4. Division of Germany Germany was partitioned (divided) into 2 countries East and West Germany East Germany was controlled by the USSR West Germany was controlled by the USA, Great Britain, and France Berlin (capital of Germany) was also divided into two

56 4. Division of Germany East Germany and East Berlin were communist West Germany and West Berlin were capitalist

57 5. United States takes control of Japan Japan was occupied by American forces Soon, Japan adapted a democratic government Later, gained self government and became an economic super power

58 6. Creation of the United Nations Improved the League of Nations Goal: to prevent all future wars

59 6. Creation of the United Nations Improved the League of Nations Goal: to prevent all future wars

60 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Established and adopted by members of the United Nations Provided a code of conduct for the treatment of people under the protection of their government

61 7. Marshall Plan Created by General George Marshall (United States) A plan to rebuild European countries Gave money to European democratic countries to rebuild

62 8. Rapid US Economic Growth After the war, defense plants switched to producing consumer goods Americans bought goods on credit New technology boomed Women were forced out of factory jobs they gained during the war to make room for men returning from war Labor Unions gained more power and gave workers higher salaries

63 WW II Casualties: Europe Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations

64 WW II Casualties: Asia Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations

65 Country Men in war Battle deaths Wounded Australia 1,000,000 26, ,864 Austria 800, , ,117 Belgium 625,000 8,460 55,513 1 Brazil 2 40, ,222 Bulgaria 339,760 6,671 21,878 Canada 1,086, , ,145 China 3 17,250,521 1,324,516 1,762,006 Czechoslovakia 6, ,017 Denmark 4,339 Finland 500,000 79,047 50,000 France 201, ,000 Germany 20,000,000 3,250, ,250,000 Greece 17,024 47,290 Hungary 147,435 89,313 India 2,393,891 32,121 64,354 Italy 3,100, , ,716 Japan 9,700,000 1,270, ,000 Netherlands 280,000 6,500 2,860 New Zealand 194,000 11, ,000 Norway 75,000 2,000 Poland 664, ,000 Romania 650, ,000 6 South Africa 410,056 2,473 U.S.S.R. 6,115, ,012,000 United Kingdom 5,896, , ,267 United States 16,112, , ,846 Yugoslavia 3,741, , ,000 WW II Casualties 1. Civilians only. 2. Army and navy figures. 3. Figures cover period July 7, 1937 to Sept. 2, 1945, and concern only Chinese regular troops. They do not include casualties suffered by guerrillas and local military corps. 4. Deaths from all causes. 5. Against Soviet Russia; 385,847 against Nazi Germany. 6. Against Soviet Russia; 169,822 against Nazi Germany. 7. National Defense Ctr., Canadian Forces Hq., Director of History.

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