Why did competing political parties develop during the 1790s?

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1 Standard VUS.6a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events from the last decade of the eighteenth century a) explaining the principles and issues that prompted Thomas Jefferson to organize the first opposition political party. Different views of economic and foreign policy issues led to the development of the first American political parties. Why did competing political parties develop during the 1790s? Federalists v. Democratic Republicans Controversy over the Federalists for the Bank of the United, the Jay, and the undeclared war on contributed to the emergence of an organized opposition, the Democratic Republicans, led by Thomas and James. The presidential election of, won by Thomas Jefferson, was the first American election in which power was peacefully from one political party to another. The, led by John Adams and Alexander, typically believed in a strong national and commercial economy. They were supported by and business interests in the. The Democratic believed in a weak national and an agricultural economy. They were supported by, artisans, and frontier in the South.

2 Standard VUS.6b (Expansion) b) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on the American Indians. Economic and strategic interests, supported by popular beliefs, led to territorial expansion to the Pacific Ocean. The new American republic prior to the Civil War experienced dramatic territorial expansion, immigration, economic growth, and industrialization. Americans, stirred by their hunger for land and the ideology of Manifest Destiny, flocked to new frontiers. Conflicts between American settlers and Indian nations in the Southeast and the old Northwest resulted in the relocation of many Indians to reservations. What factors influenced American westward movement? United States Expansion Expansion resulting from the Louisiana Purchase and War of Thomas, as president in 1803, purchased the huge Territory from France, which doubled the size of the United overnight. He authorized the Lewis and Clark to explore the new territories that lay west of the River. Sacajawea, an American Indian woman, served as their guide and. 2. The American victory over the in the War of 1812 produced an claim to the Oregon Territory and migration of American settlers into, which was later acquired by treaty from. 3. The Doctrine (1823) stated the following: 1. The American should not be considered for future by any European powers. 2. Nations in the Hemisphere were inherently different from those of i.e., they were republics by nature rather than. 3. The United States would regard as a to its own peace and safety any by European powers to their system on any state in the Western Hemisphere. 4. The United States would not in European affairs.

3 Standard VUS.6b (Manifest Destiny) b) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on the American Indians. Economic and strategic interests, supported by popular beliefs, led to territorial expansion to the Pacific Ocean. The new American republic prior to the Civil War experienced dramatic territorial expansion, immigration, economic growth, and industrialization. Americans, stirred by their hunger for land and the ideology of Manifest Destiny, flocked to new frontiers. Conflicts between American settlers and Indian nations in the Southeast and the old Northwest resulted in the relocation of many Indians to reservations. Manifest Destiny The westward movement and economic development What factors influenced American westward movement? 1. American streamed westward from the coastal into the Midwest,, and Texas, seeking opportunity in the form of land to own and. 2. The growth of and canals helped the growth of an industrial and supported the westward movement of. 3. Eli Whitney s invention of the gin led to the spread of the slavery based cotton in the Deep South. 4. American into Texas led to an armed revolt against rule and a famous battle at the Alamo, in which a band of fought to the last man against a vastly superior. The Texans eventual victory over Mexican forces subsequently brought into the United States. 5. The victory in the Mexican War during the 1840s led to the acquisition of an enormous that included the present day states of, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New. Impact on the American Indians 1. The belief that it was America s Manifest to stretch from the to the Pacific provided political support for territorial. 2. During this period of westward, American Indians were repeatedly defeated in violent with settlers and soldiers and forcibly removed from their ancestral. They were either forced to march far away from their homes (the of Tears, when several tribes were relocated from Atlantic states to Oklahoma) or confined to.

4 Standard VUS.6c The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events from the last decade of the eighteenth century c) examining the reasons why James Madison asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain in 1812 and how this divided the nation. Regional self interests led to a divided nation at war against the British. What were the causes of the War of 1812? The War of 1812 British interference with shipping and expansionism fueled the call for a of war. opposed Madison s war and talked of secession and proposed constitutional, which were not acted upon.

5 Standard VUS.6d The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events from the last decade of the eighteenth century d) relating the changing character of American political life in the age of the common man (Jacksonian Era) to increasing popular participation in state and national politics. An extension of the franchise, westward expansion, and the rise of sectional interests prompted increased participation in state and national politics. In what ways did political democracy change in the years following the War of 1812? The Jacksonian Era The changing of American politics in the age of the man was characterized by 1. heightened emphasis on in the political process for adult males 2. the rise of group politics and issues 3. a style of campaigning 4. increased voter. Andrew personified the democratic of the age by challenging the elite and rewarding campaign with public office ( System). The Federalist disappeared, and new political, the Whigs and Know, were organized in to the Democratic.

6 Standard VUS.6e (Sectionalism: Causes) e) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including tariffs, slavery, the abolitionist and women s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union. The nation struggled to resolve sectional issues, producing a series of crises and compromises. These crises took place over the admission of new states to the Union during the decades before the Civil War. The issue was whether the number of free states and slave states would remain balanced, thus affecting the distribution of power in the Congress. Causes of Sectionalism Sectional tensions caused by competing economic interests What issues divided America in the first half of the nineteenth century? 1. The North favored high protective to protect Northern manufactured from foreign competition. 2. The South opposed high that made the price of imports more. Sectional tensions caused by westward expansion 1. As new entered the Union, were reached that maintained the of power in between free and slave. a. The Missouri (1820) drew an east west line through the Louisiana, with prohibited above the and allowed below, except that was allowed in Missouri, of the line. b. In the of 1850, California entered as a free, while the new Southwestern acquired from would decide on their own. c. The Kansas Act of 1854 repealed the Missouri line, giving people in and Nebraska the choice whether to allow in their states or not ( popular sovereignty ). This law produced fighting in Kansas as pro and anti forces battled each other. It also led to the of the Republican Party that same year to oppose the of slavery.

7 Standard VUS.6e (Tension & Suffrage) e) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including tariffs, slavery, the abolitionist and women s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union. The nation struggled to resolve sectional issues, producing a series of crises and compromises. These crises took place over the admission of new states to the Union during the decades before the Civil War. The issue was whether the number of free states and slave states would remain balanced, thus affecting the distribution of power in the Congress. Tension and Suffrage Sectional tensions caused by debates over the nature of the Union What issues divided America in the first half of the nineteenth century? 1. South Carolinians argued that sovereign could nullify the Tariff of 1832 and other acts of. A that allowed state governments to invalidate of the national legislature could be dissolved by states from the Union in defense of (Nullification ). 2. President threatened to send federal to collect the tariff. Sectional tensions caused by the institution of slavery 1. Slave revolts in, led by Nat and Gabriel Prosser, fed white Southerners about slave rebellions and led to harsh laws in the against fugitive slaves. Southerners who favored were intimidated into. 2., led by William Lloyd Garrison, publisher of The, increasingly viewed the institution of as a violation of Christian principles and argued for its. Southerners grew alarmed by the growing of the Northern response to the. 3. Fugitive events pitted Southern slave against outraged Northerners who opposed returning escaped to bondage. The women s suffrage movement 1. At the same time the movement grew, another reform took root the movement to give equal to women. 2. Seneca Declaration a. Roles of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B., who became involved in the women s suffrage before the Civil War and continued with the after the war

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