The United States Expands West. 1820s 1860s

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1 The United States Expands West 1820s 1860s

2 Georgia Standards SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing northsouth divisions and westward expansion. a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas, and the Grimke sisters). b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories. d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso. e. Explain the Compromise of SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Brown s Raid.

3 MANIFEST DESTINY The idea that God has willed the United States to span the continent of North America from coast to coast ( from sea to shining sea ) Legitimatized American expansion to the West

4 The Road to the Missouri Compromise Northwest territories - land acquired from the British after their defeat in the American Revolutionary War. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 strictly forbade slavery in these territories.

5 The Road to the Missouri Compromise Louisiana Purchase (1803) large tract of land purchased from France; doubled the size of the United States The question after the purchase: Will it be free or slave?

6 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 To keep the balance of power (representation) between slave states and free states in Congress, the Missouri Compromise was passed in Missouri entered as slave state. Maine entered as free state. Slavery was outlawed in Louisiana Territory north of the 36/30 line of latitude.

7 Mexican American War The addition of Texas to the Union was a big issue during the 1830s- 40s. Mexico wanted to acquire Texas, but Texas wanted to remain its own country. Mexico invaded Texas and defeated Texan forces at the Battle of the Alamo (March 1836) Remember the Alamo became a rallying cry by the Texan (and eventually US) forces. Texas gained its independence from Mexico after the Battle of San Jacinto (April 1836) Texas would enter the Union as a slave state in VS.

8 Map of the United States (1846)

9 Mexican American War U.S. President James K. Polk wanted to expand the United States to the Pacific Ocean. Planned to buy California from Mexico but Mexico would not sell. Mexico upset over border dispute with Texas and United States Mexico claimed the boarder was at the Nueces River US claimed the boarder was at the Rio Grande Polk sent General Zachary Taylor to the disputed area to enforce the border. Mexican soldiers ambush and American patrol in the disputed territory What resulted was the Mexican- American War. James Polk Zachary Taylor

10 Mexican American War ends Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo officially ended the Mexican American War in 1848 US gained California and much of the Southwest and Rocky Mountains (red)

11 The War s Aftermath: The Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso - Introduced an amendment to the Treaty of Guadelupe- Hidalgo to forbid slavery in newly acquired territory David Wilmot, Representative from Pennsylvania The amendment did not pass the Senate & never became law In some sense, the Mexican War became the opening shots of the Civil War Issues left unanswered by the Mexican War would fuel the beginnings of the American Civil War Many of the military officers during the Mexican War became key figures in the American Civil War Robert E. Lee Thomas Jackson Jefferson Davis Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman

12 Gold Discovered in California Discovery of gold in California Gold discovered at Sutter s Mill Many Americans flock to California to get rich ( Forty Niners ) Residents petitioned Congress to grant statehood as a free state in 1849 California s proposed constitution forbade slavery

13 The Representation Battle in Newly Acquired Territory Free states were beginning to outnumber slave states (representation in Congress was thrown off balance). Many Southerners started to see their representation being taken away (the question was what would be next) In order to appease the two sides, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850.

14 The Compromise of 1850 A. California would be admitted as free B. Utah and New Mexico Territories open to popular vote on slavery C. Slave trade abolished in D.C. D. Enforcement of Fugitive Slave Law

15 Kansas Nebraska Act Popular Sovereignty States should decide for themselves, BY VOTE, whether they wanted to be free or they wanted to hold slaves.

16 Kansas-Nebraska Act Proposed in 1854 by Stephen A. Douglas Said that Nebraska and Kansas would enter the Union with the principles of popular sovereignty Act nullified the Missouri Compromise by allowing slavery in the forever free territories of the LA Purchase The States Rights issue was revitalized

17

18 Bleeding Kansas Settlers from Northern states and Southern states flocked to Kansas; each side wanting to outnumber the other Violence erupted over the issue of popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty was not working.

19 The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott Slave taken by his owner into a free territory Sued his owner, John Sanford, for his freedom The case went all the way to the Supreme Court (Dred Scot v. Sanford) In 1857, the Court ruled against Scott, claiming that slaves were property and could be taken anywhere. Supreme Court also ruled the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional saying that slavery could not be prohibited in federal territories (only states). Small victory for the Southern States and states rights platform

20 John Brown s Raid John Brown Fiery abolitionist preacher who got his start in Bleeding Kansas John Brown decides to help start a slave uprising to end slavery once and for all in the United States. Planned to begin his slave uprising by seizing weapons at the Federal Armory in Harper s Ferry, Virginia and arming slaves. His plan failed. He was captured and executed. Northern abolitionists saw him as a martyr; most US citizens saw him as a terrorist. Brown s Raid and execution pushed the divided nation even further apart. The American Civil War was just around the corner

21 Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln John Breckinridge John Bell Stephen Douglas

22 South Carolina Secedes Upon hearing of the news of Lincoln s election, South Carolina seceded from the Union. secede - to break away or leave 10 other states would follow South Carolina and create a new country in America known as the Confederate States of America (CSA)

23 Ticket Out the Door: John Brown Listen to following video links (John Brown s Raid $ John Brown s final speech before his execution) at these links: Analyze John Brown s speech from two different perspectives: that of a Northern abolitionist and that of a non-abolitionist. Complete ONE of the following: Write one paragraph (4-5 sentences) from the perspective of an abolitionist in support of John Brown s speech. Write one paragraph (4-5 sentences) from the perspective of a non-abolitionist in opposition to John Brown s speech.

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