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1 Dred Scott v. Sandford - Dred Scott, a southern slave, sues for his freedom. Court decision rules that: African Americans had no rights to citizenship & Congress could not limit a slave owner s control over their property Ended possibility of compromise on the slavery issue. First Great Awakening 1740 s emphasized the importance and power of religion George Whitfield spread the message. Second Great Awakening Christian revival; early 1800 s Connected to social reforms. War between the British & the French over claims to the Ohio River Valley; spread to other areas & eventually to Europe. Great Britain defeated France. Led to large war debts for England which they believed the colonials should help pay. Indian Removal Act Proposed by President Jackson to remove tribes still east of the Mississippi River. Tribes would trade their lands for new lands, money, rifles & provisions. Jackson feared tribes might ally with foreign nations and therefore were dangerous. Led to Trail of Tears designed to break up tribes & assimilate American Indians into American civilized society Set up the Reservation System: gave tribes land to farm, but no equipment or assistance, destined to fail Meant to protect Indian welfare, but nearly destroyed their culture. Gibbons v. Odgen Supreme Court decision that ruled only Congress could regulate interstate commerce (trade between the states). Encouraged the growth of a national market. Sets stage for expansion of Congressional power over activities once regulated by the states. Louisiana Purchase President Thomas Jefferson authorized the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France. Doubled size of United States. Gave U. S. control of Mississippi River Explored by Lewis & Clarke. Marbury v. Madison established judicial review the right of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional. Ruling strengthened the power of the judicial system making it the final authority in interpreting the Constitution. McCulloch v. Maryland the state of Maryland tried to put a tax on all bank notes not chartered in Maryland. Case addressed the issue of Federal power and commerce. Supreme Court ruled Congress had the power to charter a bank. Morrill Act provided each state with federal land (30,000 acres x the # of members in Congress). Land was to be sold to establish public colleges. Sixty-nine colleges were established & have educated millions of United States citizen. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut set up a system of self- government in Connecticut, led by Thomas Hooker. Set up a representative government. Stated that government is based on the rights of individual citizens. Industrial Revolution - Change from cottage industries to factory production. Began in Great Britain s. Driven by growth of factory system, steam power & the mass production of goods. Changed the U.S. economy & lifestyles of many.

2 Intolerable Acts in response to the Boston Tea Party. Closed the Boston Harbor. Eliminated the government council (elected by colonists) restricted freedom of Massachusetts citizens. Trail of Tears forced removal of tribes in southeastern US (most associated with Cherokees). Marched to their new home in Indian Territory (current day Oklahoma). 1/4 died on the 800-mile trip from illness, exposure & starvation. Manifest Destiny - Belief that it was the fate of & ordained by God for Americans to occupy North American from coast to coast. Impacted political, economic and social actions. Motivated by need to be secure against foreign powers & the desire for wealth. Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution. British recognized independence of the colonies. Ceded all lands from Atlantic to Mississippi & from the Great Lakes to Florida border (doubled the size of the new nation). U.S. Mexican War dispute over Texas border (shortly after Texas annexation into US). Pres. Polk declared war, used dispute to expand US lands. Mexico was defeated. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo US paid $15 million for California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona & parts of Colorado (MEXICAN SESSION). Northwest Ordinance procedures for orderly future expansion of the U. S. Slavery was prohibited in the Northwest Territory. System to admit new states as equals to original colonies when population reached 60,000 (to form not less than 3 or more than 5 states). Worcester v. Georgia - Court case brought against Georgia by Worcester (missionary to Cherokees) in response to the Indian Removal Act. Court ruled in Cherokee s favor. Did not prevent Jackson from forcing relocation of Cherokees in Trail of Tears march. Reconstruction Era period after Civil War, primarily related to rebuilding the South. Disagreements over how to deal with southerners. Freedman s Bureau, Black Codes, carpetbaggers & scalawags, & sharecropping system features of Reconstruction. Battle of Lexington and Concord - First battles of the revolutionary war. The shot heard around the world. Battle of Saratoga largest British army regiment was defeated. British army unprepared; thought colonials were ignorant farmers. Helped Franklin & Jefferson to persuade the French to supply assistance to the Americans Marked a turning point in the war Battle of Yorktown last battle of American Revolution. With French help (their fleet blocked British escape by sea), Colonial army defeated the British. Gen. Cornwallis surrendered to Gen. Washington. Mercantilism - British policy of using the colonies to provide wealth to the Mother Country. Colonies sell cash crops to British; then become the market for the expensive finished products. Economic system controlled by & designed to benefit the Mother Country.

3 Monroe Doctrine 1823 closed Western Hemisphere to any new European colonization. Pres. Monroe announced the U. S. would enforce this bold doctrine. Established the United States influence in North America. Washington s Farewell Address read after Washington declined 3rd term as President. Warned against the rise of political parties, raised the challenges of foreign affairs, addressed relations between North and South, emphasized moral virtue. Radical Reconstruction Congress radical Northerners wanted to punish the South. Reconstruction Act inflicted harsh treatment under military rule. 14th Amendment & Civil Rights Act gave rights to freedmen. Tried to impeach President Johnson (failed). Mayflower Compact - Signed by the men of the Plymouth colony. Attempted to establish a system of self-government Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. Virginia House of Burgesses - First assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America. First met in Jamestown, Virginia Declaration of Independence - July 4, 1776 Written by Thomas Jefferson. Announced colonist s desire to separate from Britain. Listed the colonial grievances. Civil War First shots fired at Ft. Sumner. War between the North (Yankees) & the South (Confederates). Fought over states rights, such as slavery. Articles of Confederation - The first constitution of the US. Created a confederacy, a system of government where the states were more powerful than the national government. Had many weaknesses. Constitutional Convention - US delegates meet to repair the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Delegates drafted a new constitution in George Washington presided. Federalists - Supported a new Constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation. Supported a stronger national government. Federalist Papers by Madison, Hamilton & Jay argued for ratification of the Constitution. Anti-Federalists Opposed to the new Constitution. Patrick Henry, George Mason & others feared a strong national government would trample on state s rights. Refused to ratify the Constitution without a Bill of Right. Stamp Act - Act saying all paper (and some other things) must have a stamp to be sold. Further angered the colonists. Proclamation of Britain s King George III s order forbidding colonists from expanding to the west. Angered the colonists and created hostilities. Separation of Powers - Principle of government that divides the roles & responsibilities of the government. Insures that no branch is too powerful.

4 Checks and Balances - Principle of government where each branch affirms or vetoes the actions of the other branches. Representative Government - Principle of government where the people elect others to make decisions and laws for them. Limited Government - Principle of government that guarantees the government s power is limited by law. War of nd war for independence. U.S. declares war with Great Britain over impressments of U.S. soldiers & U.S. desires to expand Northwest. English Bill of Rights - Act declaring the rights & liberties of English subjects. Colonials felt they were denied some of these rights that were due them as British citizens. Jamestown - Founded in st permanent English settlement in the new world. Magna Carta - Limited the power of the English monarch. Signed by King John in Predecessor of U. S. Bill of Rights. Unalienable rights - Rights that exist in the state of nature. Rights you are born with. Nullification Crisis - South Carolina believed a state could nullify (void) a Tariff Act passed by the U. S. South Carolina threatened to succeed if the tariff passed. Pres. Jackson threatened to send federal troop into S. Carolina Emphasized state s rights issues. Slavery - Issue that divided the United States since origin. Ended with the Civil War and Lincoln s Emancipation Proclamation. Sectionalism - Loyalty to one s own region/section of the country rather than the nation as a whole. One of the issues leading up to the Civil War. Three Fifth s Compromise - A compromise made during the Constitutional Convention. Agreement to count 3 out of every 5 of the slave population for property & tax purposes. Popular Sovereignty - Principle of government giving power to the people. Through elections, people give power to the government. Federalism - Constitutional principles that gives some powers to the national government and other powers to state and local governments. System of shared powers. Bill of Rights - First ten amendments to the constitution. Lists the rights of individuals. Critical to passage of the Constitution. Emancipation Proclamation - Order issued by Abraham Lincoln that formally freed the slaves. Issued January 1, years after the Civil War started. 13th Amendment - Amendment to constitution that ended the right to own slaves.

5 14th Amendment - Defines citizenship as All persons born or naturalized in the United States. Protects people from states trying to infringe (limit or take away) their civil rights. Gave African Americans citizenship. 15th Amendment - Amendment prohibiting any government from taking away a citizen s right to vote, based on race, color or previous condition of servitude.

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