2 Essential Question Section 1: The Colonial Period Section 2: Uniting for Independence Section 3: The Articles of Confederation Section 4: The Constitutional Convention Chapter Summary
3 Content Vocabulary limited government representative government separation of powers
4 Reading Strategy As you read, create a time line that reflects basic English and American documents on representative government.
5 An English Political Heritage The English colonists advanced two basic political principles: limited government the concept that a monarch s power is limited, not absolute representative government a government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
6 An English Political Heritage (cont.) The Magna Carta came to represent the idea of limited government to protect from: unjust punishment and the loss of life, and levying of taxes without popular consent. The Petition of Right limited the power of Charles I by preventing him from collecting tax without Parliament s consent.
7 An English Political Heritage (cont.) The English Bill of Rights advanced several principles including: Monarchs do not have absolute authority. The monarch must have Parliament s consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, and maintain an army. The monarch cannot interfere with parliamentary elections.
8 An English Political Heritage (cont.) John Locke s theory of a social contract was based on natural rights to: life, liberty, and property.
9 Colonial Governments The English founded thirteen colonies along the eastern coast of North America between 1607 and Colonial governments established practices that became key to the nation s system of government, including: a written constitution a legislature of elected representatives The Thirteen Colonies
10 Colonial Governments (cont.) the separation of powers between the executive and the legislature The Mayflower Compact was the first colonial plan for self-government. The General Fundamentals was the first system of law in the English colonies. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was America s first formal constitution. The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first colonial legislature in America.
11 America s first formal written constitution was A. the Mayflower Compact. B. the English Bill of Rights. C. the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. A A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% 0% B C
13 Content Vocabulary revenue embargo
14 Which of these contributed most to conflict between the British government and the colonies? A. the Stamp Act of 1756 B. the Coercive Acts A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
15 The Colonies on Their Own Two events contributed to growing tension between the British government and the colonies: After success in the French and Indian War, the British government thought that the colonies had an obligation to help pay the war debt. The Stamp Act of 1756 increased Britain s revenue but angered the colonists. Then the King would not even allow them to move into new territory: Proclamation of 1763
16 The Colonies on Their Own (cont.) The Boston Tea Party was a protest by colonists that led to Parliament passing the Coercive Acts. The colonist called them the Intolerable Act Blocking ports Closing Congress Quartering Troops ETC Until Money was paid back for dumping tea into the harbor
17 Colonial Unity By the 1760s colonial leaders began to take action against British oppression. Committees of correspondence were organized to urge resistance to the British. The Intolerable Acts prompted Massachusetts and Virginia to organize the First Continental Congress.
18 Colonial Unity (cont.) This led to the first battle of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. This is when the colonists slapped their moma Delegates from the thirteen colonies gathered for the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia and immediately assumed the powers of a central government.
19 Independence Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution to the Continental Congress declaring the independence of the colonies. Thomas Jefferson wrote a draft of the Declaration of Independence that was prepared by a congressional committee. The final draft was approved on July 4 and signed by all 56 delegates.
20 Independence (cont.) The Declaration of Independence has three parts: a statement of purpose and basic human rights, a list of specific complaints against George III, and a statement of the colonists determination to separate from Great Britain.
21 Independence (cont.) The Declaration of Independence transformed the colonies into states. By 1776, 10 states adopted their own written constitutions. Comparing Governments
22 In June 1776, what Virginian declared independence by introducing a resolution in the Continental Congress? A. Samuel Adams B. Thomas Jefferson C. Thomas Paine D. Richard Henry Lee A A. A B. B B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
23 Section 3 Government Under the Articles of Confederation By March 1781, all 13 colonies had ratified or approved, the Articles of Confederation. The central government under the Articles was a unicameral, or single-chamber, legislature. When the legislature, or Congress, was not in session, the government was run by a Committee of the States.
24 Government Under the Articles of Confederation (cont.) Each state had one vote in Congress no matter its size or population. Congress had only those powers mentioned in the Articles, such as: make war and peace, raise and equip a navy, maintain an army by asking states for troops, and regulate Indian affairs.
25 Under the Articles of Confederation the government was to be run by a Committee of States when A. state legislatures were not in session. B. Congress was not in session. C. a dispute between states could not be settled by Congress. A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% A B C
26 Weaknesses of the Articles Because the Articles of Confederation created an ineffective national government, it had several weaknesses: Congress did not have the power to levy or collect taxes. Congress did not have the power to regulate trade. Government Under the Articles of Confederation
27 Weaknesses of the Articles (cont.) Congress could only advise and request that states comply with its laws and the Articles. Laws needed the approval of 9 of the 13 states. Amending the Articles required all states to agree. Government Under the Articles of Confederation
28 Weaknesses of the Articles (cont.) The central government did not have an executive branch. The government had no national court system. Government Under the Articles of Confederation
29 To amend or change the Articles of Confederation required which of these? A. approval of 9 states. B. approval of threefifths of the states. C. approval of all states. A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% 0% A B C
30 Achievements The Articles established a fair and consistent policy for settling and developing the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. Individual states ceded, or yielded, their land claims in the West to the central government. Congress then passed two land ordinances, or laws, that set out how the lands would be organized.
31 Achievements (cont.) The Ordinance of 1785 provided for the surveying and division of the territory. The Ordinance of 1787 provided that once territories reached a certain population, they could achieve equal statehood. Congress set up the departments of Foreign Affairs, War, Marine, and the Treasury under a single permanent secretary.
32 The Ordinance of 1787 stated that A. population size determined statehood. B. statehood was determined by geographical size. C. states must cede Western land claims to the government. A A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% 0% B C
33 The Need for Stronger National Government After the war, the states faced growing problems. States quarreled over borders, tariffs and taxes on goods from another state. The central government owed $40 million to foreign governments and unpaid American soldiers. The states debt led to an economic depression.
34 The Need for Stronger National Government (cont.) Economic troubles led to Shays s Rebellion an uprising by armed groups of farmers that forced several courts to close to prevent farm foreclosures. In 1787 Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, who favored stronger national government, persuaded the delegates to hold a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles.
35 Who led an uprising of farmers attempting to prevent farm foreclosures? A. Alexander Hamilton B. Daniel Shays C. James Madison D. George Washington A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D
39 Reading Strategy Use a graphic organizer similar to one below to list the issues at the Constitutional Convention and how they were settled.
40 In your opinion, which has had the greatest impact on the way our current government functions? A. the Electoral College B. the four-year presidential term limit A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
41 The Convention Begins In 1787 the Constitutional Convention began work on revising the Articles. Leaders of the convention included: George Washington Benjamin Franklin James Wilson Gouveneur Morris James Madison
42 The Convention Begins (cont.) Each state would have one vote on all questions and a majority vote of the present states would make decisions. Convention delegates agreed to abandon the former government and begin again. The delegates reached a consensus on many basic issues: All favored limited and representative government.
43 The Convention Begins (cont.) All agreed that the powers of the national government should be divided among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. All believed in limiting state power to coin money or interfere with creditors rights. All agreed to strengthen the national government.
44 Which of these issues did delegates agree on during the Constitutional Convention? A. abandonment of the former government B. increasing the power of states to assess creditors rights C. granting states the power to coin money D. strengthen the power of the states under the articles A. A B. B C. C D. D A 0% 0% 0% 0% B C D
45 Decisions and Compromises The Virginia Plan introduced 15 resolutions that proposed a government based on three principles: a strong national legislature with two chambers, a strong national executive to be chosen by the national legislature, and a national judiciary to be appointed by the legislature.
46 Decisions and Compromises (cont.) The New Jersey Plan called for government based on keeping key features of the Articles including a unicameral legislature with one vote for each state. Congress would be given the power to impose tax and regulate trade. A weak executive, of more than one person, would be elected by Congress. A national judiciary with limited power would be appointed by the executive.
47 Decisions and Compromises (cont.) The Connecticut Compromise, which was adopted, suggested a legislative branch with two parts a House of Representatives, with state representation based on population, and a Senate, with two members from each state.
48 Decisions and Compromises (cont.) The Three-Fifths Compromise stated that instead of counting all slaves when determining representation, only three-fifths were to be counted for both tax purposes and representation. Another compromise established that Congress had the power to regulate interstate commerce and foreign commerce.
49 Decisions and Compromises (cont.) Some Northern states wanted to abolish slavery but compromised knowing that the Southern states would not accept the Constitution if it interfered with slavery. The Electoral College, in which each state selects electors to choose the president, was established.
50 Decisions and Compromises (cont.) A four-year presidential term provided a compromise between those who favored a longer term and those who feared a longer term created too much presidential power. The Constitution was completed on September 17, 1787 and signed by thirty-nine delegates.
51 Northern states knew the Southern states would not accept the new Constitution if A. slaves were counted when determining representation. B. it interfered with slavery. A. A B. B 0% 0% A B
52 Ratifying the Constitution The debate over the ratification of the Constitution divided the people of the states into two groups. The Federalists favored the Constitution and argued that without a strong national government, anarchy, or political disorder, would triumph. Ratifying the Constitution
53 Ratifying the Constitution (cont.) The Anti-Federalists opposed the new Constitution and complained that it was extralegal because Congress authorized the Convention only to revise the Articles. Anti-Federalists argued that the Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights to protect the rights of the states. Ratifying the Constitution
54 Federalists argued in favor of A. a strong national government. B. a weak national government. C. abolishing slavery. A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% 0% A B C
56 English Traditions The Magna Carta established the principle of limited government The English Bill of Rights limited the powers of the monarch House of Commons exemplified representative government
57 Colonial Independence Declaration of Independence formally separated colonies from England Articles of Confederation emphasized state governments over a strong federal government
58 New Constitutional Government New government balanced need for strong central government with continued state power Inclusion of Bill of Rights ensured ratification of new government
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