american History Semester Exam review (KEY)

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1 american History Semester Exam review (KEY) 1. Fill in the name of each era and characteristics. Then use the word bank to match the events. 1. Exploration & Colonization 2. American Revolution 3. Creating a Constitution Characteristics: Gold, Glory God Characteristics: Distrust of Great Britain Taxation without representation War for independence Characteristics: Articles of Confederation Constitutional Convention Ratification Events: Events: Events: Jamestown Mayflower Boston Tea Party Shot heard around the world Declaration of Independence Shay s Rebellion Convention Bill of Rights Word Bank (Match each of the following events to the correct era) Declaration of Independence Establishment of Jamestown Mayflower Compact Constitutional Convention 2. What is the significance of the following dates? 1607: _Jamestown 1620: _Mayflower Compact 1776: _Declaration of Independence 1787: Constitution 1791: Bill of Rights (Hint: These are the 1 st 10 Amendments)

2 Unit 1: exploration and Colonization 3. Complete the chart on the 13 colonies and their regions. (10.B, 2.B, 12.A, 23A) Region Colony Founder Reason Characteristics New England New Hampshire Connecticut Rhode Island Massachusetts X Thomas Hooker Roger Williams John Winthrop Many of the settlers in New England came for religious freedom because they were being persecuted (attacked) in England. Geography: Rocky soil Short growing season Cold climate Coastal location Economy: Fishing Shipbuilding Lumber Merchants Middle ^N New Jersey X X New York X X Pennsylvania Geography: Fertile soil long growing season mild climate lots of rain coastal location Economy: Bread basket Delaware X X Georgia Maryland Haven for debtors and prisoners Geography: Fertile soil long growing season hot climate lots of rain coastal location Southern Virginia Virginia Company Economic reasons South Carolina X X Economy: Cash crops Agriculture rice and tobacco North Carolina X X *ALL OF THE COLONIES HAVE A COASTAL LOCATION!- Differences are because of geographic conditions Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 2

3 4. What were the reasons for the following Europeans exploration and colonization of North America? England to establish colonies and expand empire France to profit from trading in furs and other goods Spain to spread their culture and religion 5. Define mercantilism. the economic theory that a nation s power is determined by its wealth (MONEY=POWER) 6. What did the colonies provide for England? raw materials ADD: all wanted to find a shorter waterroute to Asia 7. What did England (mother country) provide for the colonies? manufactured goods 8. Draw a rough diagram or map reflecting the Triangular Trade routes in the box above. 9. Complete the chart on Colonial Government. Name Virginia House of Burgesses What was it? Legislative body in the Virginia Colony. Colonial Governments Why it was Who important? wrote/created it? Year first elected colonial assembly X X Mayflower Compact social contract self-government Pilgrims 1620 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Town Meetings Document listing the laws to be followed by the Connecticut government citizens meet to discuss local issues and manage town affairs first written constitution Thomas Hooker limited selfgovernment New England colonies X X 10. Why did the colonists desire to have representative government? Wanted to be able to represent their own interests specifically for taxation Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 3

4 Unit 2: American revolution 11. What was the Great Awakening? A religious revival that swept over the colonies beginning in the 1720s. 12. What are 5 major effects of the Great Awakening? 1. Importance of religion 2. New religious groups 3. Emphasis on education 4. Belief grows that people are equal (Preachers encouraged notions of equality) 5. More willing to challenge authority prior to the American Revolution 13. Who fought in the French & Indian War? French & _Indians_ vs. Britain & colonists 14. What did the Treaty of Paris 1763 do? Ended the French & Indian War 15. What did the Proclamation of 1763 do? Colonists can t settle west of the Appalachian Mountains 16. The British were in debt from the French & Indian War. How were they going to raise money? Tax colonists 17. Fill in the missing information on the American Revolution timeline. 1 st battles: _Lexington & Concord Turning Point: Saratoga Last Battle: Yorktown Known as the _Shot heard round the world _U.S._ victory Convinces the French Force _British to surrender *AMERICA WINS!* to help the colonists 18. Fill in the following information about the Treaty of Paris 1783: Ends the American Revolution Colonists gain independence from Great Britain British recognize U.S. ownership of all territory from the Atlantic Ocean to the _ Mississippi River Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 4

5 19. Complete the chart on the people of the American Revolution. Name What he/she did: Crispus Attucks African American; First person killed at the Boston Massacre Samuel Adams Leader of the Sons of Liberty George Washington Commander of the Continental Army Marquis de Lafayette French aristocrat who fought for the U.S. in the American Revolution Wentworth Cheswell James Armistead Haym Solomon First African-American elected to public office and own property Made an all-night ride from Boston to warn his community of a British invasion African-American slave Spied on British troop movements and reported it to the Americans Polish Jew who was a financier of the Revolution. John Paul Jones Father of the American Navy I have not yet begun to fight! 20. Complete the chart below on the Declaration of Independence. Declaration of Independence Year Written Primary Author Purpose Intended Audience 1776 Thomas Jefferson Declare independence from the British (included grievances and list of unalienable rights) British & the colonies Famous Excerpt We hold these truths to be self-evident,... that among these rights are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness Inspired by (British philosopher) John Locke (suggested that people have the right to overthrow a government that oppresses them) Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 5

6 Unit 3: creating a constitution 21. What were the major effects of the Northwest Ordinance? Prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory Encouraged free public education Guaranteed religious freedom ***Established a method for adding new states! 22. What was America s first form of government)? Articles of Confederation 23. List the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. 1. Too weak 2. Economic resources 3. Boundary disputes 24. Complete the chart over the Constitutional Convention. Year Location Original purpose/plan What did they decide to do? 1787 Philadelphia 4. Arguments between states 5. Respect from other nations Revise Articles of Confederation write new constitution Leader Father of the Constitution Great Compromise George Washington James Madison Solved the issue of representation Big states wanted representation based on _population Small states wanted representation to be equal Compromise: Creates a _bicameral_ (two-house) legislature House of Representatives: Based on population Senate: Each state has 2 senators 3/5 (Three-Fifths) Compromise Southern states wanted to count slaves Northern states _did not want_ to count slaves Compromise: Every 5_ slaves counts as 3 free people (slaves count as less than one free person) Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 6

7 25. Put the following events in order (First = #1, Last = #5) 4 Constitution is drafted 1 Battles at Lexington and Concord 5 Bill of Rights added 3 Articles of Confederation are written 2 Declaration of Independence is signed 26. Use the word bank to contrast the ideas of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Federalists Anti-Federalists Supported ratification of the Constitution Alexander Hamilton, James Madison Opposed ratification of the Constitution Patrick Henry, George Mason Supported ratification of the Constitution Alexander Hamilton, James Madison Patrick Henry, George Mason Opposed ratification of the Constitution. Word Bank: 27. What was the purpose of the Federalist Papers? Who wrote them? The Federalist Papers were written to persuade states to ratify the U.S. Constitution. They were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. 28. Complete the chart on the principles of government. Principle Definition Example in the Constitution Popular Sovereignty Federalism Separation of Powers Checks & Balances People are the source of the government s power The sharing of power between the states and national governments Each branch has its own responsibilities Each branch holds some control over the other two Voters elect government officials National enumerated States - reserved The U.S. government is split up into three branches President must get Congressional approval when making treaties. Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 7

8 29. What did Montesquieu believe in? Separation of powers 30. What are unalienable rights? Rights guaranteed to all citizens that cannot be taken away 31. What is an amendment? An official change to a document (Constitution) 32. What is ratification? Official approval 33. Complete the chart on the Bill of Rights. Amendment 1 Description Personal freedoms (Religion, Assembly, Petition, Press, & Speech RAPPS!) 2 Right to bear arms 3 No quartering of troops in private homes 4 No unreasonable search & seizure Due Process of Law 5 6 Right to speedy & public trial 7 Right to trial by jury 8 No cruel and unusual punishment or excessive bail 9 Constitutional rights do not deny other rights 10 Powers not explicitly given to the national government are given to the states 34. What is citizenship? a member of a nation or country, and to have full rights and responsibilities under the la 35. List the 5 requirements of becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States. 1. Live in U.S. for 5 years 2. Know English 4. Be at least 18 years old 5. Take an oath of allegiance to the U.S 3. Pass a citizenship exam Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 8

9 domestic Issues 36. Why was America in debt when Washington became President? Unit 4: early republic Foreign Issues 43. What was Washington s opinion on foreign alliances? Fighting the Revolutionary War 37. What is a precedent? He thought the U.S. should steer clear of permanent alliances issued the proclamation of neutrality. Something done or said that becomes an example for others to follow 38. What do we call the president s group of advisors? Cabinet 39. Who was Washington s Secretary of Treasury? Alexander Hamilton 40. What did Hamilton want to create? National Bank 41. What other issue (hint: rebellion) did Washington have to deal with? Washington s farewell address 44. What two things does Washington warn against in his farewell address? 1. Foreign alliances 2. Political Parties 45. Does the country take his advice? Nope Whiskey Rebellion 42. How many terms did Washington serve? 2 political parties 46. F Strong support in New England 47 DR Worried about the growing power of the central government 48 DR Based on views of Thomas Jefferson 49 F Believed that strong central government was necessary 50 DR Strong support in the South & West 51 F Based on the views of Alexander Hamilton Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 9

10 13 Colonies Ohio River Valley Jamestown Atlantic Ocean Label the following: Atlantic Ocean 13 Colonies Jamestown Ohio River Valley Appalachian Mountains 51. What year was Jamestown founded? 1607 Follow Up Questions: 52. Why was the Ohio River Valley important? The French & Indians fought the British & American colonists for this land during the French & Indian War 53. What proclamation made the Appalachian Mountains the Western border for colonists? Proclamation of 1763 Use the Quizlet and this review to study for your exam! 10

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