Articles of Confederation

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1 Articles of Confederation

2 Do Now How is power divided in our country today?

3 SWBAT Analyze government problems under the Articles of Confederation

4 Activity Review the Articles of Confederation chart and answer questions on your own With a partner read each case study and complete each question We will discuss your responses as a class

5 Articles of Confederation During the Revolutionary War and the 2 nd Continental Congress, the first constitution was drafted Articles of Confederation

6 Food for Thought What weaknesses can you identify in the Articles of Confederation? If you could change the Articles of Confederation to make the national government stronger, what changes would you make?

7 Weaknesses 1. 1 vote per state regardless of size 2. Congress couldn t collect or levy taxes 3. Congress powerless to regulate foreign trade & interstate commerce 4. No executive to enforce laws 5. No national court system to interpret laws 6. Could only amend with consent of all states 7. 9/13 majority required to pass laws a firm league of friendship, nothing more

8 Weaknesses Therefore: Articles of Confederation were only an alliance they did not give Congress any real power to govern Why????

9 Wrap Up What was the structure of the new government under the Articles of Confederation? Why did the national government under the articles face bankruptcy?

10 Homework Read History Might Not Have Happened This Way Answer questions on a separate piece of paper

11 Opposition to the Articles

12 SWBAT Explain the significance of Shay s Rebellion

13 Articles of Confederation Written in 1777 (not approved until 1781)- a set of laws adopted by Congress to govern the U.S. Provided a limited (weak) national government - states had most power

14 Terms to Know Confederation an alliance of states formed to coordinate their defense and relations with foreign governments Congress gathering of representatives from 13 states who met to conduct business - combined the functions of executive and legislative branches

15 Opposition to the Articles 1. Wealthy people feared it gave too much power to the people 2. Created debt problems (states created economic chaos because printing too much $$$) 3. States began to tax each other which led to disputes between states

16 Opposition to the Articles By early 1780 s wealthy elitists began to call for a stronger, national government to confine the behavior of the states

17 Nationalists Worked to make National Government stronger Military Officers, Congressmen, Merchants, Planters, and Lawyers Feared U.S would not get respect abroad : The Critical Period - Why do you think this period was given this term?

18 Shay s Rebellion Shays Rebellion Cause: MA raised its taxes, farmers couldn t pay, attacked tax collectors they lost their land to the bank Daniel Shay led a revolt of farmers against the state of Massachusetts

19 Shay s Rebellion Neither the state nor the national government (Congress) had $ or an Army to stop it

20 Shay s Rebellion Result of Rebellion: - Example of what would happen if we continued to use the Articles of Confederation - People defy the government when the government goes against peoples wishes - Americans would sacrifice social order for individual freedoms - Leaders were urged by the event to go to Philadelphia to write a new constitution

21 Constitutional Convention Held in Philadelphia delegates attended (James Madison, Ben Franklin, George Washington, and Alexander Hamilton) Not there: Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (out of the country- diplomats in Europe); women, Native Americans, African Americans, and poor white men

22 Independence Hall- Declaration of Independence, Continental Congress, Constitutional Convention, the Constitution

23 Constitutional Convention Goal: To amend the Articles What really happened: - Decided to write a new constitution

24 Task Read, The Constitution & the Idea of Compromise and review questions with a partner Crash Course: The Articles, The Constitution (8 min) America Gets a Constitution

25 Discussion Would a dictatorship-the very government Washington was afraid of creating-be able to solve the problems of the United States today more easily than a democracy? Explain.

26 Constitutional Convention

27 Constitutional Convention Group Activity: - Class will be divided into two groups 1. Small States 2. Large States - Read the Plan for the new Constitution that your group has come up with and complete the questions as a group - What are the major differences between the groups?

28 SWBAT Describe compromises made during the Constitutional Convention Do Now: Why didn t all states agree on a structure for the new Constitution?

29 Constitutional Convention Virginia Plan Bicameral Legislature VS. New Jersey Plan Unicameral Legislature State representation depended on population Favored Large States Equal representation for all states Favored Small States

30

31 Great Compromise aka Connecticut Plan Issue of representation was solved Known as the Great Compromise Created Congress as we know it today! A bicameral legislature

32 Congress Senate Upper House Each state gets 2 representatives House of Representatives Lower House # of representatives based on population of state

33 Three-Fifths Compromise Debate over slavery and power Who would want slaves to be counted in the population for representation reasons? Southern States Didn t want slaves counted when it came to taxes though!

34 Three-Fifths Compromise Northern States objected claimed if slaves could not vote, they should not be counted in the population Result: For every 5 enslaved people, 3 would be counted for representation and taxes Predict what would have happened if opponents of slavery at the Constitutional Convention had insisted on abolition?

35 Fugitive Slave Clause Applied to fugitive slaves who ran away from their slave owner The law required the slave be returned to their enslaver However, the law did not provide a way to carry out this plan

36 Activity! Review the Federalist and Anti- Federalist Arguments with a partner. Summarize the 6 arguments made by each side in the right-hand column.

37 The Great Debate Federalists Strong national government Bill of Rights unnecessary Gov ts power limited by Constitution Anti-Federalists Weak national government Bill of Rights necessary Felt gov would abuse it s power and President King

38 The Great Debate Federalists G. Washington, J. Madison, A. Hamilton, John Jay, John Adams Feared people more than government Better organized Anti-Federalists Patrick Henry, George Mason, Thomas Jefferson Felt Constitution was a betrayal of the Revolution Feared government more than people

39 The Great Debate Federalists favored ratification of the new constitution Anti-federalists opposed ratification

40 The Great Debate

41 The Great Debate 9 states ratified the Constitution by 1788 Virginia & New York were not included in those 9 Success of the new government depended on ratification by NY & VA

42 Wrap Up What are some reasons the Federalists had more support than the Antifederalists?

43 Regents Review Complete the Regents Questions for a quick review

44 Ratifying the Constitution

45 SWBAT Explain Madison s arguments in Federalist 51

46 Do Now What compromises were made to appease delegates at the Constitutional Convention?

47 Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers were: - A series of 85 essays written anonymously, and published in a New York newspaper - GOAL: to convince New Yorkers of the need to ratify the Constitution - Written by: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay

48 Wordle Federalist 51 Task: Analyze the Wordle for Federalist 51 and predict: What do you think Madison will write about in this essay? Think-Pair-Share

49 Federalist Papers Read the summary of Federalist 51 and answer reflective questions with a partner We ll discuss as a class

50 Federalist Papers FEDERALIST No. 51 The structure of the government must provide the proper checks & balances between the different departments FEDERALIST No. 78 The Judiciary Department

51 Write a Letter You are a passionate Federalist, campaigning for New York to ratify the new Constitution Write a letter to your neighbors in support of ratification, urging them to campaign with you and why

52 Bill of Rights

53 Do Now What was the major compromise to achieve ratification of the Constitution? THE BILL OF RIGHTS!

54 Bill of Rights Activity! Using The Bill of Rights- Plain and Simple, respond to the questions on your Bill of Rights Activity sheet with a partner. We will review and discuss as a class.

55 Bill of Rights Summary

56 SWBAT Explain the Bill of Rights in their own words.

57 Bill of Rights Guarantees basic rights of the people against the power of the federal government Analyze the Bill of Rights. Put them into your own words & come up with an example of where we see this in society today. Review the first four amendments of the Bill of Rights & rank in order of importance to you:

58 Bill of Rights 1 st Amendment: Freedom of religion, speech, press, to assemble peacefully, & to petition the government 2 nd Amendment: Right to bear arms 3 rd Amendment: Government may not require people to house soldiers during peacetime 4 th Amendment: Protects people from unreasonable searches & seizures; warrants can be issued only if there is probable cause

59 Bill of Rights 5 th Amendment: If accused of a crime, right to be formally accused in court; not to be tried twice for the same crime after acquittal or conviction (double jeopardy); not to be forced to give evidence against yourself; to receive a fair trial; receive fair compensation if gov. takes private property for public purpose

60 Bill of Rights 6th Amendment: If accused of a crime, right to be told of charges; receive speedy & public trial with impartial jury; face prosecution witness; have a lawyer; witness to testify on your behalf

61 Bill of Rights 7 th Amendment: Right to a jury trial 8 th Amendment: Prohibits excessive bail & cruel and unusual punishment

62 Bill of Rights 9 th Amendment: Rights not mentioned in the Constitution belong to the people 10 th Amendment: Powers not delegated to the national government are reserved to the states or people (aka Federalism)

63 Bill of Rights Case Studies

64 Apply the Bill of Rights to case studies ACTIVITY: Bill of Rights Review! SWBAT

65 3 Branches of Government

66 Do Now How did the Bill of Rights satisfy the Anti-Federalist argument? It provided for the protection of individual s rights

67 Due Process The Due Process Clause in the 5 th Amendment & the Right to an Attorney in the 6 th Amendment ensure fair treatment for people accused of a crime

68 Cartoon Analysis What s the meaning of this cartoon?

69 US Constitution: Popular Sovereignty- source of authority to govern is the people democracy Limited Government- governmental power is defined & limited by the law

70 US Constitution: Separation of Powers- power to govern is divided: legislative, executive, judicial no branch is more powerful than another! Flexibility- The US Constitution is a living document - continuously interpreted & able to change

71 Separation of Powers

72 3 Branches to Government LEGISLATIVE (Congress): Makes Laws 1. Overrides presidential vetoes 2. Approves presidential appointments 3. Approves/ratifies treaties 4. Collects taxes to provide services 5. Declares war & provides defense 6. Regulates & coins money & trade 7. Impeaches officials

73 3 Branches to Government EXECUTIVE (President): Enforces Laws & Treaties 1. Can veto laws 2. Appoints high officials (ie. CJ of SC) 3. Conducts foreign policy 4. Enforces laws & treaties 5. Commander-in-Chief of the military 6. Recommends bills to Congress 7. Reports the state of the Union to Congress

74 3 Branches to Government JUDICIAL: Interprets & Explains Laws (According to the Constitution) 1. Settles legal disputes between states 2. Settles state & federal disputes 3. Settles disputes between US & foreign nations 4. Hears cases with foreign ambassadors 5. Settles disputes between Federal government & individuals

75 Unwritten Constitution 1. Political Parties 2. Cabinet (President s Advisors) 3. Judicial Review- Supreme Court s right to declare laws unconstitutional 4. Committee System in Congress 5. Lobbyists- influence gov. views

76 Wrap Up Why did the founding fathers provide a Bill of Rights? 3 Branches of Government?

77 Checks & Balances

78 Do Now Which Constitution principle is represented in this cartoon? What message is the cartoonist trying to get across? What symbols does the cartoonist use?

79 SWBAT Apply the idea of Separation of Powers to explain the system of Checks and Balances

80 Checks and Balances Checks and Balances- each branch has ways to check/control the other branches President Congress Supreme Court

81 Checks and Balances Review The Checks and Balances System diagrams carefully Declare Your Powers Group Activity: Please listen for directions!

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