2 US Timeline Patriots win Battles of Saratoga. Continental Congress passes the Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation go into effect. British surrender at Yorktown Treaty of Paris formally ends the Revolutionary War and recognizes the independence of the United States Daniel Shays leads a rebellion of Massachusetts farmers Constitutional Convention is held in Philadelphia U.S. Constitution is ratified George Washington becomes the first president of the United States Bill of Rights is ratified.
3 Terms and People constitution document stating the rules under which a government will operate executive person who runs the government and sees that the laws are carried out economic depression period when business activity slows, prices and wages drop, and unemployment rises Daniel Shays army veteran and Massachusetts farmer who led an uprising to protest economic conditions
4 Even before independence was won, many colonies now states began to create new state governments. In most states, the problems colonists had experienced with Britain helped shape the new state constitutions. State Constitutions
5 Colonists believed the king had abused his powers. For this reason, the states gave few powers to the governor. Most powers went to legislatures elected by the people. Powers of the executive Powers of the legislature
6 Most states allowed more people to vote than in colonial times. Voter Qualifications White Male Over 21 Property ownership Still, African Americans and women were not allowed to vote in almost all the states.
7 To make sure that people s rights would not be abused again, many states included a bill of rights in their constitutions. Virginia Bill of Rights Freedom of Religion Freedom of the Press Trial by Jury Limits on Searches Limits on Arrests No Cruel and Unusual Punishment
8 While the states were writing new constitutions, so was the Continental Congress. In 1777, the Congress adopted a new plan of government for the nation: the Articles of Confederation. Articles of Confederation
9 During the Revolution the Continental Congress began to develop the first plan for a national government. They disagreed about the number of votes each state should have and about control of the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. Eventually arrived at a final plan called the. The national government would be run by a Confederation Congress and each state would have one vote.
10 Under the Articles, the powers of the central government were given to Congress - a legislature elected by the people. In fact, the legislature was the only branch of government created by the Articles. There was no chief executive. There were no national courts. Executive Branch Judicial Branch
11 To make sure the new legislature did not become too strong, its powers were limited. Powers given to Congress deal with foreign countries deal with Native Americans make laws declare war coin or borrow money run a postal service
12 Even more important than the powers given to Congress, however, were the powers not given to Congress. Powers not given to Congress regulate trade collect taxes Congress was forced to depend on the states when it needed money. This weakened the central government and gave considerable power to the states.
13 The national government had few powers under the because many Americans were afraid that a strong government would lead to tyranny. This left most important powers to the states.
14 Western Land Claims Some states refused to approve the Articles until other states gave up their claims to lands in the west. Finally, the Articles were approved, and the land was turned over to the national government.
15 Moving West In 1775, Daniel Boone and 30 frontiersmen cut a road over the Appalachian Mountains into Kentucky. They hacked through brush, chopped down trees, and bridged creeks. This 250 mile road was not easy to travel. It was too narrow for carts or wagons, but it became the main road into Kentucky. The trail into Kentucky that Daniel Boone helped build was called the. Settlers traveled on foot or on horseback, drawn to Kentucky s rich river valleys. By the early 1790s, about 100,000 Americans lived there.
16 Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through the Cumberland Gap
17 The western lands were very valuable and in great demand. To provide for the sale and settlement of these lands, Congress passed two new laws. The Land Ordinance of 1785 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
18 The outlined how the land in the Northwest Territory would be divided. Lands would be divided into townships. Townships would be divided into 36 sections. Each section would be sold piece by piece.
19 Within each township, one section would be set aside for schools. The nation s leaders believed that democracy could not survive without education.
20 described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed. As the territory grew in population, it would gain rights to selfgovernment. When there were 60,000 people in an area, they could apply to become a new state. It also outlined settlers rights, guaranteed freedom of religion, trial by jury, and outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory. The Northwest Ordinance was important because it allowed for the orderly growth of the nation.
21 While the government succeeded in organizing the settlement of western lands, it faced mounting problems. Problems States taxed each other s goods States used different money Congress had no money Other countries ignored U.S.
22 Weaknesses Debt was a critical problem for our new government. Congress had borrowed large sums to pay for the Revolutionary War. Much of that money was owed to soldiers of its own army. In June 1783, hundreds of soldiers surrounded the Pennsylvania State House where Congress was meeting. They were upset about not being paid. Congress had no power to levy taxes and the states didn t send much money, so the delegates were forced to flee the city. Congress was not alone in facing an economic crisis. People throughout the nation faced hard times.
23 It s the Economy Stupid!
24 Mt. Vernon Conference In 1785 representatives from Maryland and Virginia met at the Mt. Vernon estate of George Washington to discuss a trade dispute involving the navigation of the Potomac River. The delegates resolved far broader issues of trade and mutual policy between the two states. The General Assembly of Virginia proposed a broader trade conference to be held in Annapolis, Maryland the following year. Washington s Mt. Vernon Estate
25 The Annapolis Convention In September 1786, delegates from five states met in Annapolis, Maryland, to discuss ways to promote trade among the states. The delegates believed that creating national trade laws would help the economies of all the states. Making such changes required amending the Articles of Confederation, because the national government had no power to regulate trade among the states. Still many Americans doubted that the national government needed strengthening.
26 Shays Rebellion In the mid-1780s, the new United States faced economic problems. In Massachusetts people had little money, but the state continued to levy high taxes. The average family owed $200 in taxes per year more money than most farmers made. Many farmers fell deeply into debt and, at that time, if you could not repay your debts your property could be auctioned off and you could be put in jail. The jails were packed. Farmers asked the state legislature for debt relief. But they refused and the farmers rebelled. This spelled danger for the new nation and many leaders called for a stronger national government.
27 Shays Rebellion A Revolutionary War veteran named Daniel Shays commanded a group of 1,500 men. Daniel Shays and his men attacking the Springfield armory in 1787.
28 Shays Rebellion failed, but it focused attention on the weaknesses of the new nation s government. Many began to think that a stronger central government was needed. Strong central government In response, Congress asked the states to send delegates to a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
29 Terms and People James Madison delegate from Virginia who took notes at the Constitutional Convention; called the Father of the Constitution judicial branch branch of government that consists of a system of courts to interpret the law Roger Sherman delegate from Connecticut who helped draft the Great Compromise James Wilson delegate from Pennsylvania who argued in favor of election of the legislature compromise agreement in which each side gives up part of what it wants Gouverneur Morris delegate responsible for writing the Preamble to the Constitution
30 The Constitutional Convention On February 21, 1787, the Continental Congress resolved that:...it is expedient that on the second Monday in May next a Convention of delegates who shall have been appointed by the several States be held at Philadelphia for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation... The original states, except Rhode Island, collectively appointed 70 individuals to the Constitutional Convention, but a number did not accept or could not attend. Those who did not attend included Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams and, John Hancock. In all, 55 delegates attended the Constitutional Convention sessions, but only 39 actually signed the Constitution. The delegates ranged in age from Jonathan Dayton, aged 26, to Benjamin Franklin, aged 81, who was so ill that he had to be carried to sessions in a chair.
31 Key Framers of the Constitution
32 The states sent delegates to Philadelphia to solve the problems of the Articles of Confederation. The Constitutional Convention met in the Pennsylvania State House, today called Independence Hall.
33 The purpose of the convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation. From the beginning, however, many delegates believed that the Articles could not be saved. Independence Hall
34 Independence Hall Today
35 On just the third day of the convention, a proposal was presented to replace the Articles with a totally new plan of government. The plan was written largely by James Madison of Virginia.
36 The Virginia Plan called for a strong central government with three separate branches. Central Government Legislative Branch Congress Make Laws Executive Branch President Carry Out Laws Judicial Branch Courts Interpret Laws
37 The Virginia Plan also called for Congress to have two separate houses - an upper and a lower house. Congress Upper House Lower House Representation in both houses would be determined by a state s population.
38 Delegates from the small states opposed the Virginia Plan. Each state, they argued, should have the same number of votes in Congress. William Paterson of New Jersey introduced his own plan, calling for Congress to have one house, and for each state to have one vote. New Jersey Plan
39 The issue of representation in Congress nearly tore the convention apart. Virginia Plan More people, more votes New Jersey Plan One state gets one vote
40 Finally, Roger Sherman of Connecticut introduced a compromise that gave each side part of what it wanted. The convention approved Sherman s compromise, which became known as the Great Compromise.
41 The Great Compromise
42 The issue of representation in Congress came up again this time concerning slavery. Should slaves be counted as part of a state s population? Southern delegates said yes Northern delegates said no A compromise was reached. Each enslaved person would be counted as three fifths of a free person.
43 The Three-Fifths Compromise, however, did not address the issue of the slave trade itself. Some Northern delegates wanted to completely ban the slave trade. Southern delegates argued that such a move would ruin the South s economy. Again, a compromise was reached.
44 Slave Trade Compromise Ships could bring enslaved people into the country for 20 years. After 1808, enslaved people could not be brought into the country. The slave trade within the country would stay the same.
45 When the last compromise was reached, the delegates finally agreed on the provisions of the new Constitution. Gouverneur Morris wrote the Preamble, which identifies the source of the new government s authority in its opening words. We the People of the United States...
46 On September 17, 1787, all but three delegates signed the Constitution.
48 Terms and People ratify approve Alexander Hamilton supporter of the Constitution and an author of the Federalist Papers John Jay supporter of the Constitution and an author of the Federalist Papers George Mason Anti-Federalist leader who argued in favor of a bill of rights
49 People who supported the Constitution were called and people who opposed it were called. In general terms Federalists lived in or near the larger cities while Anti-Federalists lived in more rural areas.
50 Federalists and Anti-Federalists James Madison George Mason John Jay Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Patrick Henry
51 James Madison was a leading Federalist. Madison and others argued that a strong national government was needed for the Union to survive. At that time, the national government could not even enforce its own laws.
52 The were a collection of essays that supported ratification of the Constitution. These essays first appeared as letters in New York newspapers and were later published in a book called The Federalist. The essays secret authors were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay.
53 George Mason and Patrick Henry were among Anti-Federalists leaders who argued that the new national government would have too much power. weakened the states Constitution of the United States no Bill of Rights President could become a king
54 Ratifying the Constitution Immediately following the Constitutional Convention, most states held special ratification conventions, with elected officials representing counties or regions throughout the state. The New York ratifying convention was held in the city of Poughkeepsie. While many of the smaller states quickly ratified the new Constitution, the debate in the two largest and most important states, New York and Virginia, raged on for months.
55 Supporters of the Constitution turned out in parades like this one in New York in The Ship of State float has Alexander Hamilton s name on it to celebrate his role in creating the Constitution.
58 The new government could now be put in place. George Washington was elected President. John Adams was elected Vice President. A new Congress was elected, too, and one of its first tasks was to take up the question most debated during the ratification process - whether to add a Bill of Rights to the new Constitution.
59 George Washington became the first president of the United States in He was inaugurated, or sworn in, at Federal Hall in New York City, on April 30, 1789.
60 While all of the states eventually accepted the new government, states such as Virginia and New York did so only after the addition of a. The first 10 amendments to the Constitution were added soon after ratification and became the U.S. Bill of Rights and stand as the Anti-Federalists greatest contribution to the Constitution.
61 The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution in order to protect people against the power of the national government.
62 The Bill of Rights The first four amendments protect citizens from possible abuses by the federal government.
63 The Bill of Rights The next four amendments protect people who are accused of crimes.
64 The Bill of Rights The last two amendments limit the power of the federal government.
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