How Shall We Govern Ourselves?

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1 How Shall We Govern Ourselves? The Articles of Confederation America s First Constitution

2 What kind of government would the FREEDOM loving Americans create to balance LIBERTY with enough AUTHORITY to get things done for the common good?

3 Shifting The Balance of Power Monarchy British Constitution is unwritten. Colonies Monarchy

4 Shifting The Balance of Power Confederation Government Articles of Confederation Congress States

5 No Federal (National) Government The new Americans said NO WAY Afraid that it would limit their liberties Keep the power with the states The closer the power is to the people the less of a chance it can be abused. Each State decided to keep its sovereignty (supreme power), freedom and independence, while cooperating with the other states in a CONFEDERATION.

6 The Great Achievement The American Revolution succeeded where all others were to fail Established a stable government in the 13 colonies as well as one for all 13 states.

7 Confederation A perpetual league of friendship

8 The Confederation Government Document in charge is the Articles of Confederation Single-House Congress (Missing an Executive and a Judicial Branch) Each state could send from 2 to 7 delegates who would vote as a unit. One vote only per state Votes of two-thirds of states were required to pass laws, and amendments to the Articles required a unanimous votes.

9 The Articles of Confederation At the same time the Declaration committee was meeting another committee was formed to write a new constitution. Constitution-plan or blue print of the government. John Dickinson wrote the Articles of Confederation and it was amended and approved by 1777.

10 Weak Confederation Congress Powers(Can do ) Declare War Make Treaties Manage Indian Affairs Maintain an Army and Navy Coin and Borrow Money Regulate Weights and Measures Instead of using pounds and pence, Americans use dollars and cents. Establish a Postal Service

11 What two powers did Congress lack? Regulate COMMERCE (trade) Raise TAXES

12 Other Powers Denied No Executive Branch Could not stop a state from issuing its own money No Judicial (Courts) Branch

13 States Under the Articles of The 13 States followed the GOLDEN RULE! He who has the gold makes the rules. Controlled their own purse strings. Tax Regulate Trade Confederation

14 America s Western Lands Two Important Laws The Confederation Congress passed two laws stating how the lands would be divided and governed.

15 Western Lands The western lands consist of the area west of the Appalachians Mountains to the Mississippi River. The 13 states gave up all rights to their western land claims. Congress is going to sell the land to pay off Revolutionary war debt. Indians on the western land? Move them west or north to Canada to make room for the settlers.

16 Northwest Territory

17 Land Ordinance of 1785 This gave the government a way to divide the land for sale. Survey the land Divided into townships Six miles square Subdivided into 36 sections-1 mile square (640 acres) Sections would be sold at public auction for a minimum of $1.00 per acre. Section 16 of each town would be used to support education

18 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Forbade slavery Divided the Northwest Territory into not less than three, not more than five territories.

19 Development of Territorial Governments Provided a way for territories to become states. Three Stage Process to Become a State A Congressionally appointed governor and three judges at the first stage. An elected legislature and a non-voting delegate to Congress when the population reached 5,000 free, white males. A state constitution and admission to statehood when the above population reached 60,000.

20 Problems of the Confederation No TAXING Power- No $$$$

21 Problems of the Confederation Inflation- Continental Congress issued $40,000,000 in paper money to pay war debt. They had no silver or gold to back the 40 million continentals. Their value was inflated. 40 continentals to 1 silver dollar Worthless $-Creditors would not take them!

22 Problems With the Confederation Trade Unfavorable Balance of Trade America imported goods valued at over 7,500,000 pounds sterling from Great Britain, while exporting products valued at 2,500,000 pounds sterling. Drained America of nearly every ounce of gold and silver. Wrecked hopes of stabilizing the currency Depressed prices Caused Bankruptcies Sent the US into a major commercial depression

23 Problems With the Confederation Foreign Affairs The Confederation Congress could not enforce the terms of its own peace treaty. Promised to pay our debts to British before the war. States promised to pay the Loyalists for property seized. Slow pays, and legislation to prevent payment Britain refused to remove troops from the Northwest Territory Spain refused to accept the southern boundary of the United States. Spain closes the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans to the United States.

24 Daniel Shays Rebellion Who is involved? Daniel Shays (leader), State of Massachusetts, Farmers from Massachusetts (former Rev. soldiers or veterans) Banks and Militia in Mass. What happened? Veterans come back from the war. Most have built up a great amount of debt during the war to finance their farms. Banks took on the farmers debt. Banks call in the farmers debt. The farmers having been paid in Continentals try to pay off their debt, but the currency is refused. Banks foreclose on the farmers property. The banks go in and sell all farm equipment, homes, barns and livestock. The banks have to get approval from the courts. Daniel Shays leads a rebellion and causes the courts to close. The State of Massachusetts calls in the state militia to stop the rebellion.

25 Problems of the Confederation Tariff Wars Each state, exercising its sovereignty, charged rival states a tariff.

26 Shifting The Balance of Power Republic 1788-Present United States Constitution A More Perfect Union National Sovereignty & States Rights States Rights

27 The Constitutional Convention Delegates met with on May 25 th, 1787 Held all meetings in secret. Free discussion without the fear of reprisal Tempers would flare between the following: Sections Large and Small States (population) Agrarian and Commercial Interests Nationalists and Confederationalists (states rights) All delegates agreed that the Articles of Confederation needed to be revised(changed). Create a central government weak enough to please the states yet strong enough to handle national affairs.

28 Two Plans of Government The Virginia Plan Three Branch Government Legislative Bicameral Representation was based on the population of each state. Judicial Executive The New Jersey Plan One Branch Government Legislative Granted additional powers to the legislature. Levy taxes Regulate commerce

29 Elected by the Electoral College Group of people called electors, chosen by their state to meet and elect the President and Vice President Members of the House of Representatives + Members of the Senate = Total number of electors a state could send. Vote on a given day. The person with the highest number of votes would become President and the person with the second highest votes would become Vice- President. The Executive Branch

30 Elections by the Electoral College Democrats are not in office Sept Jan Some 8 to 9 people declare they want to be the Democratic choice for President 2003-G.Bush (Rep.) incumbent-already in power A year before the election, the US will hold Democratic primary elections in all the states. Start with 8-9, all but 1 or 2 will drop out of the race by the Convention time.

31 Conventions are held June and July of Nominate a Presidential hopeful, name their running mate. Party Platform How they feel and plan take care of different issues November 2004 (Second Tuesday) Election- The people vote The electoral college vote is determined by how the state (people) votes. Texas has 35 Electoral College votes ( =35)

32 Total Votes of the Electoral Votes 435 House of Representatives (Texas has 33.) 100 Senate (Texas has 2) One more than half of the total number of Electoral Votes Total Electoral Votes- 535 (Texas gets 35 votes) Half of that We think 269 The people of Texas will determine what happens to those 35 votes. G. W. Bush won Texas - Texas will send 35 electors to Washington to vote for G.W. Bush in December of 2004.

33 Term of Office The Executive Branch Four year term No limit on the amount of terms a person could serve Constitution is broken into Seven Articles Article One? Legislative Branch Article Two? Executive Branch Article Three? Judicial Branch

34 George Mason Amend means to add or change. So Amendments are changes or additions to the Constitution. The first 10 amendments are called the Bill of Rights.

35 Powers The Executive Branch Right to veto any law passed by Congress Right to nominate Federal Judges

36 Slavery South vs. the North South wanted slaves counted for purposes of proportional representation. Increase the South s representation in House of Representatives. The North wanted slaves counted for purposes of taxation. Ben Franklin committee decided to use the threefifths rule. For purposes of taxation and representation all free persons would be counted along with three-fifth s of all other persons.

37 Slave Trade & Runaways Slave Trade Northerners and Southerners agreed that Congress would wait for 20 years before interfering with the importation of slaves. Runaway Slaves Northerners also agreed that states could not stop a fugitive slave from being returned to the owner.

38 Signing the Constitution Signed on September 17 th, 1787 Each state would hold a convention to approve or reject the Constitution. Once nine states approved it, the Constitution would go into effect. First State to sign was Delaware in Ninth state to sign was New Hampshire in Last State to sign was Rhode Island in 1790.

39 Two sides debated Ratification Federalists-Supporters of the Constitution The Federalist Papers -Series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison Arguments for the Constitution Stronger National Government Better working government Anti-Federalists- People opposed to the Constitution Sam Adams (Sons of Liberty), Patrick Henry, George Mason Arguments against the Constitution Federal Govt. had too much power. No document of Civil Liberties (Rights)

40 Bill of Rights Even though the Anti-Federalists failed to stop the Constitution from being ratified, they did win approval for the addition of a Bill of Rights. James Madison submitted a list of rights to the new Congress on June 8, Ten Amendments were approved on December 15, 1791 and they became known as the Bill of Rights. Remember that the Bill of Rights protects citizens basic freedoms (Civil Liberties).

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