The States: Experiments in Republicanism State constitutions served as experiments in republican government The people demand written constitutions

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2 The States: Experiments in Republicanism State constitutions served as experiments in republican government The people demand written constitutions provide clear definition of rights describe clear limits of government Lessons later applied to constructing central government Major break with England s unwritten constitution

3 Natural Rights and the State Constitutions State constitutions guaranteed natural rights Freedom of religion, speech, and the press. Private property Trial by jury Governors weakened Elected legislatures given most power

4 African Americans in the New Republic African-Americans embrace Declaration s stress on natural rights Demand right to freedom in petitions, suits Northern states gradually abolish slavery Southerners debate abolition Some privately free slaves Economic motives overcome republican ideals

5 Limiting Women s Freedom Women demand the natural right of equality Contribute to new society through Republican Motherhood Women more assertive in divorce, economic life Denied political and legal rights

6 Postponing full liberty Revolution limited in extension of rights Introduced ideal of freedom and equality

7 Government under Articles of Confederation In charge of foreign and Native American relations, military, and disputes between states

8 Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation severely limited central government s authority over states Each state had one vote No executive or judicial branch No taxing power States taxed each other s goods Amendments required unanimity No national currency

9 Crises of Lack of Power Barbary pirates raided ships in Mediterranean Unable to protect settlers from Indians Shay s Rebellion (1787) Tax revolt of indebted veterans Symbolized breakdown in law and order as perceived by propertied classes Strengthened support for new central government

10 Northwest Ordinance: The Confederation s Major Achievement Provided for eventual statehood of new lands Created three to five new territories in Northwest Population of 5000 may elect Assembly Population of 60,000 may petition for statehood Bill of Rights provided Slavery outlawed

11 The Nationalist Critique Restoration of trade with Britain caused trade deficit and hard currency shortage Congress unable to address trade, inflation, and debt Dissatisfaction with Articles of Confederation

12 Constitutional Convention Philadelphia: May to September Delegates George Washington: Chairman Federalists those who favored a strong National Government Anti-Federalists those who favored stronger state governments

13 Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan Virginia Plan Both New Jersey Plan Called for a bicameral legislature (two houses) Representatives in legislatures based on state population Supported by large states Want a strong central government with three branches Called for a unicameral legislature (one house) Each state given one representative each. Supported by small states who fear losing power under a national government

14 The Great Compromise Bicameral Legislature House of Representatives based on population--a victory for the large states Each state given two delegates in the Senate--a victory for the small states

15 The Issue of Slavery Slavery threatens Convention s unity Northerners tend to be opposed Southerners threaten to bolt if slavery weakened Slave trade permitted to continue to 1808 Great as the evil is, a dismemberment of the Union would be worse. --James Madison Three-fifths Compromise: slaves were counted as 3/5 of one person for purposes of taxation and representation

16 Road to Ratification Convention seeks to bypass vested interests of state legislatures Power of ratification to special state conventions Constitution to go into effect on approval by nine state conventions New York Federalist Papers written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay

17 Federalists vs. Anti-federalists Federalists Supported the Constitution Supported a strong central government Well-organized The Federalist Papers Anti-federalists Opposed to the Constitution Distrusted any government removed from direct control of the people Suspected the new Constitution favored the rich and powerful

18 Progress of Ratification No clear correlation between social status and support for Constitution Succeeded in winning ratification in eleven states by June 1788 North Carolina ratified November 1789 Rhode Island ratified May 1790

19 Adding the Bill of Rights The fruit of anti-federalist activism Adding Bill of Rights forestalled Second Constitutional Convention Purpose was to protect individual rights from government interference Rights included: Freedom of assembly, speech, religion, the press, and bearing arms Speedy trial by a jury of peers No unreasonable searches First ten amendments added by December 1791

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