1 BW What were the causes of WWI and what was the outcome of that war?
2 WWII Why it s important A. It shaped the US into a world superpower, politically, economically, and militarily. Can we keep this status for the foreseeable future? Is your generation capable of keeping the US on top? Can your generation make the US a better place?
3 B. It started the Cold War. Led to the creation of two superpowers: US and Soviet Union Locked in conflict for 45 years, communism vs. democracy. Nuclear arsenals, espionage, proxy wars, and nearly a nuclear war.
4 C. Road to civil rights for minorities and opened the door for women in the workplace Dorie Miller, Tuskegee Airmen and 442d Regimental Combat Team 1948 President Truman desecrated the armed forces and signed Executive Order Women assumed many industrial and clerical jobs
5 D. New technologies emerged Atomic weapons, radar and electronic warfare Sonar, Jet Engine, Cruise missile, Smart Bomb Antibiotics, blood plasma, First rocket to reach space
6 BW If you were sworn in as President in 1937, what would be your first area of concern? What would you say to the American people?
7 Quiz Political system where the state holds total authority over the society. Father of Communism Why did the Treaty of Versailles anger the German people? The democratic government created after WWI in Germany was called.
8 Name the leader of each of the following countries: Italy, USSR, Germany, Japan, Spain What was the US response to the war in Europe?
9 Communism, Fascism, Nazism Totalitarian Government in the 1930 s
11 Totalitarianism Political system where the state holds total authority over the society. Controls all aspects of public and private life.
12 Characteristics Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, uniforms, rallies) Strict controls and laws Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship Propaganda One leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people Use of Terror and Fear
14 Communism Left Wing Karl Marx; Classless society state ownership and control of the means of production. Soviet Communism Stalinism was more totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism.
15 Fascism Right Wing Intense nationalism and elitism Totalitarian control State more important than the people Class system and private ownership in cooperation with the state.
16 Nazism Right Wing Extremely fascist, nationalistic and totalitarian National Socialists German Workers Party Racial superiority of the Aryan, master race All Germans should have lebensraum living space in Europe Violent hatred toward Jews and blamed Germany s problems on them
17 BW Analyzing Political Cartoons Page 534 Answer questions 1-3
18 World War Looms 16:1 WWI gone, but not forgotten: Instead of securing a just and secure peace the Treaty of Versailles caused anger and resentment. Germans saw nothing fair in a treaty that blamed them for starting the war
19 These problems overwhelmed the Weimar Republic - the democratic government set up in Germany after World War I No well-functioning democracies developed in Europe and people turned to authoritarian leaders to solve their economic and social problems.
20 Joseph Stalin Man of Steel Stalin turned the USSR from a poor, rural country into the 2nd largest industrial power (behind the U.S.). Notorious for purging those who opposed him (8 to 13 million people)
21 Benito Mussolini Il Duce Played on the fears of the Italian people economic collapse and communism to institute a stronger gov t 1921 Est. the Fascist Party (Gov t power rests with a strong individual supported by a small group of devoted party members) Italy wants peace, work, and calm. I will give these things with love if possible, with force if necessary. ~ Benito Mussolini
22 Adolf Hitler Der Fuhrer Born 1889; Austria-Hungary Most of young life spent in Vienna, Austria trying to be a painter Rejected by the Fine Arts Academy twice Served as a runner in WWI (wounded twice) Became a German citizen in 1932
23 Hitler thought politicians had sabotaged the German army in WWI (& treaty) Jailed after leading an ill-fated political riot in Germany where he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined Nazism Gov t based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansion (National Socialist German Workers Party) Was charismatic and promised change
24 Believed in racial purification and supported the Master Race of Aryans (blue eyes/ blonde hair). Built a private army Sturmabteilung (SA Storm Troopers ) of brown shirts 1933 Hitler made chancellor of Weimar Republic Once in power, Hitler dismantled the Republic and installed the Third Reich (Third German Empire) which he thought would last 1000 years.
25 Hideki Tojo Razor General in the Imperial Army of Japan Became Prime Minister of Japan in 1941 and immediately finalized the attack on Pearl harbor.
26 Francisco Franco 1936 Spanish general who revolted against the Spanish Republic and started the Spanish Civil War. Hitler & Mussolini backed Franco and the fascists.and then signed a formal alliance (Rome-Berlin Axis). After 3 years and 500,000 deaths Franco was named the fascist dictator of Spain. Franco s regime and legacy lasted until 1978 when a new constitution was drafted and all symbols of Franco s regime (eagle) were banned by Spanish law.
27 Acts of Aggression 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria 1933 Germany left the League of Nations 1935 Hitler rebuilt and mobilized the German army (against Treaty of Versailles) 1936 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia
28 America Avoids War U.S. embraced isolationism 1933 FDR formally recognized the USSR Neutrality Acts Outlawed arms sales/loans to foreign countries Outlawed commerce to countries engaged in Civil War (Spain)
29 War In Europe Germany annexed Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich To grow and prosper Germany needed the land of its neighbors. The German Question can be solved only by means of force, and this is never without risk.
30 March 12, 1938-Germany marched into Austria unopposed. Germany and Austria formed a union. The US and the rest of the world did nothing Hitler turned to the Sudetenland-More land for the Germans. Rumors of Czech crimes against the German people England/France meet in Munich with Hitler to resolve the crisis peacefully.
31 Hitler claimed the Sudetenland was his last territorial demand. British Prime Minister-Neville Chamberlain-tried to make peace and gave in to Hitlers demand. Signed over the Sudetenland Chamberlain returned home My friends, there has come back from Germany peace with honor. I believe it s peace in our time. Appeasement-giving up principals to pacify an aggressor.
32 Start of War=Quick Facts Hitler invades Poland-Sept. 1, 1939 Poland falls and is divided between Germany/USSR Germany turns West. Takes over all of Western Europe except England. France is forced to surrender June 1940 Battle of Britain-Germany bombs England in attempt to take England USA sends war materials to help the Allies Germany invades USSR in attempt to take land and resources-2 front war.
33 German Offensive USSR shocks everyone by declaring itself neutral. Hitler and Stalin sign the nonaggression pact-and agreed to never attack each other; also secretly divided Poland.
34 Blitzkrieg- A. Take enemy by surprise-lightening warfare. B. Quickly crush all opposition with overwhelming force. Summer 1940, France falls and Germany turns to Britain. Luftwaffe (airforce) and launches an air attack against England. Bombs London every night for 2 months; radar helps the RAF and they shoot down German bombers. Hitler calls off invasion of England
35 America Moves to War Both France and Britain need help from the US Cash and Carry allowed warring nations to buy US arms as long as they paid cash and transported them in their own ships. FDR sold weapons to Britain and traded 50 destroyers (ships) for leases on British military bases FDR convinced Congress to pass the first peacetime U.S. draft and FDR, himself, drew the first numbers on the radio.
36 BW Under what circumstances should the US enter a war? Explain
37 America Moves to War September 1940-Tripartite Pact: Germany, Japan, and Italy signed a mutual defense pact. These three nations became known as the Axis Powers. Designed to keep the US out of the war because each nation promised to come to the aid of the others if attacked threat of a two-ocean war.
38 FDR responded (page 552) Britain ran out of money lend or lease arms to any country whose defense was vital to the US. Isolationists argued against the plan, but most Americans favored it, Congress passed the Lend- Lease Act in June 1941-Hitler invaded USSR, FDR extended lend-lease to USSR and Stalin.
39 FDR plans for War German U-boats waged fierce attacks on British and American ships. US was at undeclared war with Germany. Atlantic Charter- joint declaration of war aims. Did not authorize an official war but would do everything to force an incident. Allies-those nations that had fought against the Axis powers, signed by 26 nations. (US, USSR, France, Britain) four-fifths of the human race
40 The US was now involved in an undeclared war with Germany. The attack that brought the US into the war came from Japan-December 7, 1941.
41 Pearl Harbor Late 1941, US military broke codes and knew Japan was preparing for an attack. December 6, 1941: FDR decoded a message that Japan s peace envoy was instructed to reject all Amrican peace offers and he put the military on alert. December 7, 1941: Day that will live in infamy.
42 Early morning, 180 Japanese warplanes attacked Pearl Harbor (largest US naval base in Pacific.) 1 1/2 hours of Japanese attack-last plane left around 9:30 AM. 2,403 Americans killed 1,178 wounded Sunk or damaged 21 ships (8 battleships) 300+ aircraft severely damaged or destroyed
43 3 aircraft carriers were at sea and were unharmedproved crucial in war s outcome Losses at Pearl Harbor were far greater than the US Navy had suffered in all of WWI. Congress declared war on Japan quickly and within 3 days, Germany and Italy had declared war on the US.
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