1 Do Now: Early Warning Signs of Fascism This sign hangs in the National Holocaust Museum as a reminder to all of us the dangers brought to the world by fascism: 1) What is Fascism? And why warn people against it? 2) Are any of these warning signs present in our lives today? If so which ones and what should we do about it?
3 Video Questions: The Rise of Hitler 1) Describe the situation of Germany at the end of WWI. Why is this significant? 2) Why did Hitler blame Jews for the situation in Germany? What 3 words are used to describe the conspiracy theories against Jews? 3) What changes in 1929? How does this help Hitler and the Nazi party to gain power and supporters? 4) How was Hitler able to expand his power beyond his role as chancellor? 5) What types of warnings can we get from the rise of Hitler? How can we use the rise of Hitler to preach against ideas such as fear, bigotry and censorship in our own country and beyond?
5 Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia Europe is plagued by economic depression and struggles after WWI Treaty of Versailles causes anger and resentment which leads to a rise in nationalist agendas (extreme patriotism) and authoritarian leadership Germany and Russia specifically are angry over loss of territory and colonies
6 Evil Dictators of WWII: Joseph Stalin and the USSR In 1922 Russian civil war leads to the establishment of a communist state led by Vladimir Lenin (USSR) Joseph Stalin (man of steel) takes control after Lenin s death in 1924 Stalin s reforms in Russia include: Replacing all private farms with collectives (government owned farms) Creates second largest industrial power; famines kill millions Purging/eliminating anyone who threatens his power: 8-13 million citizens murdered Russia becomes totalitarian state-government exterts complete control over it s citizens
7 Evil Dictators of WWII: Benito Mussolini and Italy High unemployment and inflation create contentious situation in Italy with many people supporting communism. Middle and upper class fight for stonger leadership. Benito Mussolini (Il Duce The Leader ): establishes Totalitarian state in Italy Police and army support Mussolini and his supporters Leads a pro-fascist march on Rome and is eventually declared head of government Fascism: Political Ideology that stresses nationalist ideals. Needs of state >Needs of individual
8 Evil Dictators of WWII: Adolf Hitler and Germany Adolf Hitler(Fuher): Leader of the Nationalist Socialist German Worker s Party (NAZI) in Germany Mien Kampf (My Struggle): written by Hitler set forth basic beliefs for Nazism Nazism: A brand of fascism based on extreme nationalism Promises to reunite German speaking people and build a German Empire `Encourages racial purification favoring Aryan Race 1932: 6 million unemployed in German; many men join Hitler s private army Nazi s become powerful political party in Germany during Great Depression: Name Hitler Chancellor Dismantles Weimar Republic; Establishes Third Reich (Third German Empire)
9 Evil Dictators of WWI: Hideki Tojo and Japan and Fransisco Franco of Spain HIDEKI TOJO Strong wave of Nationalism spreads across Japan-sharing common beliefs with Hitler Hideki Tojo: Chief of Army staff, becomes Prime minister and begins building a Japanese military empire Seized control of Manchuria: Invasion of Controlled resources in the region Territory in Indochina, East Indes become crucial because of US interests FRANCISCO FRANCO Spanish Civil war breaks out in 1936, General Francisco Franco rebels against Spanish Republic Franco gains backing from Mussolini and Hitler; Stalin aids the opposition US and other Western Democracies remain neutral War leads to Rome-Berlin Axis: Alliance between Germany and Italy Franco s army victorious: Becomes fascist leader of Spain
10 DICTATORS OF WWII: GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Dictator Country Political Philosophy Joseph Stalin USSR (RUSSIA) Communism / Totalitarianism Benito Mussolini Italy Fascism /Totalitarianism Adolf Hitler Germany NAZI Fascism/ Totalitarianism Hideki Tojo Japan Militarism and Nationalism (Anti communist) Fransisco Franco Spain Fascism/Totalitarianism
11 DISCUSSION THE DAILY SHOW: THE FASCIST WEEK OF DONALD TRUMP 1) How does Trevor Noah compare Donald Trump (at this point a candidate, not a president) to fascism and is this critique a fair assessment? Why or why not? 2) Is it dangerous for the media, even comedy shows, like daily show or SNL to use topics as serious as fascism and dictatorships to criticize politicians? Why or why not?
12 EVIL CON: WWII DICTATORS SHARK TANK STYLE PROJECT FOR THE NEXT 3 CLASS PERIODS YOU WILL BE WORKING ON A PROJECT WHERE YOU WILL COMPETE TO PROVE WHO WAS THE MOST EVIL DICTATOR OF THE WWII ERA: JOSEF STALIN ADOLF HITLER BENITO MUSSOLINI HIDEKI TOJO FRANSISCO FRANCO WE WILL NEED 5 GROUPS (IDEALLY 4-5 PEOPLE PER GROUP) AND ONCE YOU HAVE DETERMINED YOUR GROUP MEMBERS YOU WILL RANDOMLY SELECT THE DICTATOR THAT YOU WILL REPRESENT
13 HOMEWORK Reflection question 16-1: Why do you think dictators like Adolf Hitler or Benito Mussolini were able to gain widespread support from their people? What evidence do you have to support this idea? Work on evil con project-bring supplies to work next class
14 DO NOW: NEGOTIATING WITH HITLER Despite the fact that the treaty of Versailles prevented Germany from growing an army or collecting territories, Adolf Hitler was able to ignore it and helped Germany to create one of the world s largest military superpowers while taking over massive amounts of European military. He used fear, racism, intimidation and bigotry to do this. 1) If you were are European world leader, how would you deal with Adolf Hitler and his nationalism and militarism? Would you negotiate? Use military force? Give in to his demands or stay neutral? Explain 2) What role does the United States have in stopping the rise of Adolf Hitler, if any? Explain your answer.
15 VIDEO QUESTIONS: THE DUCKTATORS 1) How does the video portray the following WWII Ducktators Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Josef Stalin Hideki Tojo 2) How does the video portray the United States? 3) What is the message that this cartoon is trying to send the American people about WWII?
17 Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall Union with Austria Post WW I division of Austria-Hungary creates fairly small Austria Majority of Austrians are German, favor unification with Germany 1938, German troops march into Austria unopposed, union complete U.S., Rest of world do nothing to stop Germany Bargaining for the Sudetenland 3 million German-speakers in Sudetenland Hitler claims Czechs abuse Sudeten Germans, masses troops on border 1938, prime ministers Daladier, Neville Chamberlain meet with Hitler Sign Munich agreement, hand Sudetenland over to Germany Winston churchill condemns appeasement policy, warns war will follow Appeasement giving up principles to pacify an aggressor
18 The German Offensive Begins The Soviet Union Declares Neutrality March 1939, German troops occupy rest of Czechoslovakia Hitler charges poles mistreat Germans in Poland Many think he s bluffing; invading Poland would bring two-front war Stalin, Hitler sign nonaggression pact will not attack each other Sign second, secret pact agreeing to divide Poland between them
19 The German Offensive Begins (Continued) Blitzkrieg in Poland Sept. 1939, Hitler overruns Poland in blitzkrieg; (lightning war) Germany annexes western Poland; U.S.S.R. Attacks, annexes east France, Britain declare war on Germany; World War II begins The Phony War French, British soldiers on Maginot line face Germans in sitzkrieg Stalin annexes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; defeats Finland 1940, Hitler invades Denmark, Norway, then low countries
20 France and Britain Fight On The Fall of France German army goes through Ardennes, bypassing French, British British, French trapped on Dunkirk; ferried to safety in UK 1940, Italy invades France from south; Germans approach Paris France falls; Germans occupy northern France Nazi puppet government set up in southern France General Charles de Gaulle sets up government-inexile in England
21 France and Britain Fight On (Continued) The Battle of Britain Summer 1940, Germany prepares fleet to invade Britain Battle of Britain German planes bomb British targets Britain uses radar to track, shoot down German planes Hitler calls off invasion of Britain Germans, British continue to bomb each other s cities
22 WORK ON YOUR EVIL-CON PROJECTS USE THIS TIME TO CONTINUE WORKING ON YOUR EVIL CON PROJECTS. BE SURE TO TURN IN YOUR GROUP ASSIGNMENTS TO MRS. EPLIN AND HAVE THEM APPROVED BEFORE LEAVING CLASS TODAY.
23 HOMEWORK REFLECTION QUESTION 16-2: IF YOU HAD BEEN A MEMBER OF THE BRITISH HOUSE OF COMMONS IN 1938 WOULD YOU HAVE VOTED FOR OR AGAINST THE MUNICH AGREEMENT? SUPPORT YOUR DECISION. WORK ON EVIL CON PROJECTS/PRESENTATIONS
24 DO NOW: GIVING HITLER APEASE OF YOUR MIND Even as Hitler began to expand his army (and empire) across Europe, European leaders were hesitant to engage him, and instead settled on a strategy of appeasement, which over time seemed to only grow the problem. This political cartoon shows how many people at the time viewed this appeasement strategy. 1) How does this cartoon portray Adolf Hitler? Democratic European leaders? 2) What message is the author intending to send about appeasement strategy? 3) Is this cartoon an accurate depiction of the feelings people had during this time period? Why or why not? Explain.
25 REVIEWING APPEASEMENT/ARIANA GRANDE VIDEO QUESTIONS 1)Provide 3 reasons why Neville Chamberlain (Mr. Betts) decides to appease Hitler rather than fight him? 2)Provide 3 times that Europe appeased Hitler in the 1930 s 3)What does Hitler do to finally cross the line and force the UK to interfere?
28 The Persecution Begins Jews Targeted Europe has long history of anti-semitism Germans believe Hitler's claims, blame Jews for problems Nazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; require star of David Holocaust murder of 11 million people, more than half are Jews Kristallnacht Kristallnacht Nazis attack Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues About 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested
29 The Persecution Begins (continued) A Flood of Jewish Refugees 1938, Nazis try to speed up Jewish emigration France has 40,000 refugees, Britain 80,000; both refuse more U.S. Takes 100,000, many persons of exceptional merit Americans fear strain on economy, enemy agents; much anti- Semitism The Plight of the St. Louis Coast guard prevents passengers on St. Louis from disembarking Ship forced to return to Europe; most passengers killed in holocaust
30 Hitler s Final Solution The Condemned Hitler s final solution slavery, genocide of inferior groups Genocide deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah's witnesses, unfit Germans Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them Forced relocation Jews forced into ghettos, segregated areas in polish cities Some form resistance movements; others maintain Jewish culture
31 Hitler s Final Solution (Continued) Concentration camps Many Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps Families often separated Camps originally prisons; given to SS to warehouse undesirables Prisoners crammed into wooden barracks, given little food Work dawn to dusk, 7 days per week Those too weak to work are killed
32 The Final Stage Mass exterminations Germans build death camps; gas chambers used to kill thousands On arrival, SS doctors separate those who can work Those who can t work immediately killed in gas chamber At first bodies buried in pits; later cremated to cover up evidence Some are shot, hanged, poisoned, or die from experiments The Survivors About 6 million Jews killed in death camps, massacres Some escape, many with help from ordinary people Some survive concentration camps survivors forever changed by experience
33 QUICKWRITE: KRISTALNACHT AND THE HOLOCAUST 1)Describe the event of Kristallnacht in Germany (often considered the event that started the official holocaust). 2) Compare it to some of the hate-crimes we see in our own country today. What makes it similar to these events? What makes it different?
34 HOMEWORK READ/NOTES ON CHAPTER 16-4 PART I: AMERICA MOVES TOWARD WAR 16-3: REFLECTION QUESTION: DO YOU THINK THE UNITED STATES WAS JUSTIFIED IN NOT ALLOWING MORE JEWISH REFUGEES TO IMMIGRATE? WHY OR WHY NOT?
36 The United States Musters its Forces The Axis Threat 1940, FDR tries to provide Britain all aid short of war Germany, Japan, Italy sign tripartite pact, mutual defense treaty Become known as axis powers Pact aimed at keeping U.S. Out of war by forcing fight on two oceans Building U.S. Defenses Nazi victories in 1940 lead to increased U.S. Defense spending First peacetime draft enacted selective training and service act: Draftees to serve for 1 year in western hemisphere only
37 The Great Arsenal of Democracy The Lend-Lease Plan FDR tells nation if Britain falls, axis powers free to conquer world U.S. Must become arsenal of democracy By late 1940, Britain has no more cash to buy U.S. Arms 1941 lend-lease act U.S. To lend or lease supplies for defense Supporting Stalin 1941, Hitler breaks pact with Stalin, invades USSR Roosevelt sends lend-lease supplies to USSR
38 FDR Plans for War The Atlantic Charter FDR s proposal to extend the term of draftees passes house by 1 vote FDR, Churchill issue Atlantic charter joint declaration of war aims Charter is basis of A declaration of the united nations or allies Allies nations that fight axis powers; 26 nations sign declaration Shoot on Sight Germans fire on U.S. Ship, FDR orders navy to shoot U-boats on sight U-boat attacks lead senate to repeal ban on arming merchant ships
39 DO NOW: REVIEWING THE HOLOCAUST 1) What was the Holocaust? Why did many people deny it s existence (and some still do.) 2) What types of people were being persecuted by the Nazis during the Holocaust? 3) How did Hitler and his allies justify the actions of the holocaust? 4) What did the United States do to help Jewish refugees during the Holocaust at the beginning of WWII?
41 Japan Attacks the United States Japan s Ambitions in the Pacific Hideki Tojo chief of staff of army that invades china, prime minister Japan seizes French bases in Indochina; U.S. Cuts off trade Japan needs oil from U.S. Or must take Dutch east indies oil fields Peace Talks are Questioned 1941 U.S. Breaks Japanese codes; learns japan planning to attack U.S. Peace talks with japan last about 1 month December 6, Japanese envoy instructed to reject all U.S. Proposals
42 Japan Attacks the United States The Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor 2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged Reaction to Pearl Harbor Congress approves FDR s request for declaration of war against japan Germany, Italy declare war on U.S. U.S. Unprepared to fight in both Atlantic, Pacific Oceans
43 QUICKWRITE: THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR 1) DESCRIBE THE FEELINGS OF THE PEOPLE STATIONED AT PEARL HARBOR ON THE MORNING OF THE ATTACK. 2) DORIE MILLER (AN AFRICAN AMERICAN ONBOARD THE USS ARIZONA) TAKES OVER AN ARTILLERY GUN TO SHOOT DOWN JAPANESE FIGHTER PLANES. HOW DOES HIS ROLE HIGHLIGHT THE RACE RELATIONS IN THE US MILITARY IN WWII? 3) HOW DOES THIS ATTACK IMPACT THE ISOLATIONIST VIEWS OF AMERICANS? WHY DOES THIS ATTACK ENCOURAGE AMERICANS TO GO TO WAR, WHEN THE ATROCITIES OF HITLER, MUSSOLINI AND TOJO DID NOT? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER.
44 HOMEWORK READ/NOTES: CHAPTER 17-1 MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE EVIL CON PRESENTATIONS DUE NEXT CLASS
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