3 Leadup to War 1. The Failure of the League of Nations
4 The Failure of the League of Nations Was founded by the winners of WWI in 1919 to create permanent peace through collective security. It failed to prevent war because: its member nations would not support it the US refused to join
5 The Failure of the League of Nations -Following WWI Canada distrusted European governments. It was leery of the League of Nations, even though it was a member. When Japan invaded Manchuria (a province of China) in 1931, the League of Nations condemned the action but its member nations would do nothing to stop Japan.
6 The Failure of the League of Nations Italy under Benito Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935.
7 Mussolini invaded using modern weapons against soldiers armed with spears.
8 The Failure of the League of Nations The League objected to the attack and attempted an economic boycott of Italy, but it failed to block delivery of oil supplies. Boycott: organized suspension of trade Germany under Hitler (left the league in 1933) was the first country to officially recognize Italy's annexation of Abyssinia.
9 2. Harshness of the Versailles Treaty After WWI the winners (especially France) used the treaty to punish Germany Germany was humiliated into accepting full blame for WWI the War Guilt Clause Germany was forced to pay exorbitant payments to the Allies - reparations Germany was allowed to keep only a very small army, navy & no air force Germany lost much of its land, regions where German-speaking people lived
10 Territories lost by Germany under the Treaty of Versailles E. Danzig A. Denmark D. Polish corridor B. Alsace Lorraine C. Sudetenland
11 The skeletons of German planes after the Treaty of Versailles.
12 Harshness of the Versailles Treaty These harsh terms helped Hitler come to power in Germany How? He promised to end the humiliation that the treaty imposed on Germans Many other countries (even Canada) agreed that Germany had been treated unfairly
13 3. The Great Depression All western countries were hit hard by the Depression When Hitler(Germany), Mussolini(Italy) and Tojo(Japan) started their aggression, Britain, France and Canada were too focussed on their own economic problems to worry about doing anything to stop them
14 The Great Depression Germany was hit very hard Because of the need to pay reparations, hyperinflation (when prices rise more quickly than salaries) hit Germany before the Depression did! The result a lot of unemployment and Germans wanted a drastic change of govt.! *Economic instability leads to political instability!
16 4. Rise of Fascism & Aggression of Dictators Fascism: a system of government in which nationalism is promoted, workers and industry are regulated by a strong national government, and all opposition is suppressed.
17 Fascism Founded in Italy by Benito Mussolini in 1922 Strong central government, led by a dictator Based on the ideals of nationalism, militarism, and persecution. Believed democracy was weak that people needed a strong leader
18 Characteristics of Fascism Extreme Nationalism: Devotion to one s country even at the expense of everyone else Devotion to a dictator: (one who rules a country alone) All opposition is suppressed and the media is censored Militarism: Focus on having a strong army and using war & violence to settle disputes Persecution of minorities and communists Blaming the country s problems on scapegoats such as Communists, Jews
19 Fascism and Nazism Fascism in Germany is called Nazism Had two unique policies: Lebensraum (the quest for living space for all Germans) Anti-Semitism (the hatred, persecution of Jews)
20 Hitler's Nazi party won the most seats in the German election in 1932 he was declared Chancellor in 1933 beginning of the Third Reich Hitler s promise: to reclaim land lost in Treaty of Versailles
21 Fascism and Anti-Semitism Hitler s Nuremberg Laws (1935) stripped German Jews rights and citizenship. They were forced into ghettos In 1941, the Nazis began the Final Solution to the Jewish problem ; all Jews would be sent to concentration camps and exterminated. This was The Holocaust
22 In 1936, Hitler violated Versailles, German troops marched into the Rhineland, a coal and oil-rich region between Germany and France Even though it had a superior army, France did nothing Next Hitler demanded Anschluss; unification of Germany with Austria Germany annexed Austria in 1938.
23 Fascism in Canada Some people thought that only Hitler could stop the communist threat
24 Fascism In Canada So some Canadians were attracted to Fascism Italian Canadians were sympathetic toward Mussolini's Government The Catholic Church in Quebec saw Nazism as a protector against godless Communists In large cities like Toronto and Montreal there were attacks against Jews, who were also kept out of some professions.
25 Anti-Semitism in Canada Canada turned away many Jewish refugees in the 1930s When a gov t official was asked how many Jews they would allow he replied, None is too many. This anti-semitism helps explain why the gov t was so reluctant to accept them See p.157 & p.200
26 Spanish Civil War In 1936 Spain democratically elected a left-wing, government. The Catholic Church, wealthy Spaniards, fascists and some army forces led by General Franciso Franco, opposed the new government. Franco started a civil war to take control
27 General Francisco Franco
28 Hitler supported Franco.
29 Mussolini did too
30 Russian leader Stalin supported the elected govt.
31 Spanish Civil War Canada, Britain and France had a policy of non-intervention in this war. Some 1200 Canadians secretly fought against the Fascists as part of the Mackenzie- Papineau Battalion
32 German and Italian aircraft bombed the Basque town Guernica during a busy market day
33 The world was outraged
34 Guernica One of Picasso s most famous paintings shows the tremendous suffering
35 Spanish Civil War Germany and Italy openly supported Franco because they saw it as a chance to test their war machines. Franco's forces won the war in 1939, making him dictator of Spain.
36 Hitler and Mussolini learn three lessons from Spain:
37 1. 2. The League of Nations is weak and refuses to intervene The world s democratic powers refuse to stop Hitler 3. Total War - (the use of aircraft to create terror among civilians) is very effective
38 Fascism & Aggression of Dictators Dictators in Japan, Germany and Italy wanted to take more territories Japan invaded Manchuria Italy invaded Abyssinia Hitler wanted to expand Germany through Lebensraum and Anschluss
39 Hitler also wanted more living space for Germans (Lebensraum) by invading the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia
40 Non-intervention & Appeasement: This policy of the western countries actually helped promote war! Wanting to avoid war by satisfying Hitler s demands, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler in 1938 The policy of appeasement is the best way to avoid war.
41 At the Munich Conference in September 1938, he tried to satisfy Hitler s demands
42 Neville Chamberlain Edouard Daladier Adolph Hitler Benito Mussolini But Czechoslovakia was not invited!!
43 I believe it is peace in our time. Chamberlain returned to London with the Munich Pact in hand. The document was signed by Hitler. Germany was given the Sudetenland and Hitler renounced any further claims
44 Non-intervention & Appeasement: In Canada, PM King supported Britain s signing of the Munich Pact The heart of Canada is rejoicing tonight at the success which crowned your (Britain s) unremitting effort for peace. What is the message of the quote?
45 Non-intervention & Appeasement: Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, breaking the Munich Pact Then in August 1939 Stalin and Hitler signed a non-aggression pact. This meant if Germany invades Poland the USSR does nothing! Germany & USSR would both attack & split up Poland
46 War begins: On September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland. Great Britain and France declared war on Sept 3, Appeasement of Hitler ended with the German invasion of Poland World War II had begun On Sept 3, a German U-boat sunk the passenger ship Athenia, killing 112 people including Canadians Canada declared war on Germany Sept 10
47 Recap - Causes of WWII Failure of the League of Nations Harshness of Versailles Treaty World Depression The Rise of Fascism and Aggression of dictators: Germany (Hitler), Japan (Tojo), Italy (Mussolini) + Non-Intervention & Appeasement of Hitler did nothing to stop the war
48 The Axis Powers Japan signed an Anti-Cominterm Pact with Germany in (*Comintern=Communist International) Italy joined in 1937, creating the Rome- Berlin-Tokyo axis. For the rest of the war, these countries would be called the Axis Powers.
49 The 2 sides: The Allies Canada Britain France Soviet Union (1941) United States (1941) The Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan
50 The War in Europe On September 1, 1939, Hitler unleashed a massive air & land attack on Poland. Britain & France immediately declared war on Germany. Canada asserting its independence declared war independently a few days later on September 10, 1939.
51 When the passenger ship Athenia, carrying more than 500 Canadians was sunk by German U-boats, anti-german feelings escalated. The announcement was supported by all but one member of Parliament as well as leaders in Quebec, who supported entry into the war on King s promise that conscription would never be enacted by his government.
52 As the horrors of the First World War lingered in the minds of Canadians, few displayed excitement & few expected a short war. Few however realized that the new conflict would be even longer & more costly than the First World War.
53 Canada at the Beginning of the War In September 1939, Canada was illprepared to fight a war. The army totalled only 4,000 regular troops & 60,000 part-time soldiers in the militia. The navy had 3,000 sailors & the Royal Canadian Air Force had 4,000 members.
54 By December 1939, the first Canadian troops reached Britain. It would be some time before Canada s soldiers would engage in battle in Europe. Most were stationed in Britain, undergoing training & preparing to fight off the expected German invasion.
55 The War In Europe A New Kind of War Technological developments changed the nature of warfare. Long-range aircraft, fastmoving tanks and motorized forces expanded the battlefield to include all of an enemy s territory.
56 New improved weapons made killing quicker and accurate. As the role of technology increased, the role of soldiers actually decreased.
57 Fast-moving forces required long-range communications, new radar and secret codes.
58 September 1, 1939 Hitler invaded Poland. The Phoney War lasted until spring 1940 Denmark and Norway fell in April 1940 Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg fell to the Blitzkrieg in May 1940 British and French troops were routed and retreat to the beaches of Dunkirk in France Naval ships, and civilian boats evacuate 350,000 soldiers back to Britain France surrenders to Hitler in June
59 The 2 sides: The Allies Canada Britain France Soviet Union (1941) United States (1941) The Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan
60 Blitzkrieg Lightning War Hitler s attacking strategy which fully utilized new technologies. Perfected during Spanish Civil War Used concentration of tanks and planes to break through the enemy's defense Once in enemy territory, they used speed to encircle them (called a pincer move ) thus cutting off supply lines and communication.
61 Newfoundland s Contribution Newfoundlanders served on the land, sea and air Many worked as merchant mariners transporting goods Newfoundland sent 22,000 recruits, without the use of conscription Newfoundlanders also served in various sections of the Canadian military - RCAF
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