2 In the 1930s, all the world was suffering from a depression not just the U.S.A. Europeans were still trying to rebuild their lives after WWI. Many of them could not find jobs to provide for their families. In Asia, countries were running out of resources to provide for their people. Therefore, some countries decided they would solve their country s economic problems, by doing whatever would it take even if that meant going back to war.
3 The last world war actually had not solved anything at all. Germany was still bitter. Not only was Germany being asked to pay for all the costs of WWI, but it was also experiencing the world-wide depression.
4 During the 1920s, a man named Adolf Hitler became a prominent leader in Germany. He preached to the people that they were being treated unfairly after WWI, and many people listened.
5 Hitler believed that Germans were better than everyone else and that only those that had blond hair and blue eyes were true Germans. He also hated Jews and blamed many of the country s problems on Germany s Jews. He became the leader of a political group called the National Socialists (Nazis for short).
6 Nazis believe in fascism. fascism: the government controls the economy, culture, and all parts of people s lives
7 The Nazis power grew, and they started their own army. The soldiers were called storm troopers and they would capture and attack Jews and anyone against Hitler. If the people were captured, they were sent to concentration camps (guarded camps where prisoners are held).
8 In 1933, Hitler and the Nazis took over the German government. Hitler was now a dictator (a leader who has absolute power), and Germany was now a dictatorship (when the government has total control over its people). Hitler rebooted Germany s economy by preparing for war. He had tanks, guns, and other war supplies made in the factories.
9 Hitler planned not only to go to war and conquer Europe, but he also planned to conquer the entire world! He dreamed that one day the country of Germany would be the supreme ruler of the world.
10 FACTS: Life Span: (died at age 56) Leader of the Nazis Hated Jews Believed that Germans who had blond hair and blue eyes were superior Dreamed to one day rule the world
11 More countries also found themselves to be under the rule new dictators: Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy. Military officers came to power in Japan and took control from Hirohito. Joseph Stalin came to power in the Soviet Union (Russia) after the death of Lenin. These people had complete control of their country.
12 Mussolini wanted Italy to regain the power it once had. During the ancient times the world feared the Roman Empire, and Mussolini wanted an Italian Empire to rule once again.
13 For centuries in Japan the emperor was considered a god, and in 1926 the Japanese considered Hirohito as a god as well. However, military leaders in Japan seized control and started making most of Hirohito s decisions about the country for him.
14 Japan s trade and industry were doing great, but it was running out of necessary resources like rubber, oil, and iron. The military leaders decided it was time to get what they needed by conquering other countries in Asia and in the Pacific.
15 Germany- Italy- Japan-
16 EQ: How do the nations that desire war begin their conquest?
17 Germany, Japan, and Italy all had something in common they believed in totalitarianism (they believed the good of the government was more important than the good of the people). They teamed up and formed an alliance called the Axis Powers.
18 With their new leaders, Japan, Italy, and Germany began the process of conquering other countries. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria (a part of China) and the rest of China in In 1935, Italy took over Ethiopia. In 1938, Germany took over Czechoslovakia and Austria.
19 On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Great Britain and France had had enough! They declared war on Germany two days later. World War II had begun. WWII :
20 The people called the German invasion on Europe a lightning war because the German forces moved so quickly. They took: Poland in 18 days, Denmark in 1 day, and Norway in about 3 weeks. By 1940, they had also conquered Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and most of France.
21 Germany now had control over most of Europe. Great Britain stood alone in the fight in Europe.
23 Even though Germany sent planes to bomb British cities and set up blockades around British ports, Great Britain, under the leadership of Winston Churchill, refused to give up! The people sent their families to the countryside, away from the cities being bombed, and built bomb shelters underground in both places. They would go in their bomb shelters whenever a siren sounded for safety.
24 In 1941, Germany then moved its attention toward the Soviet Union s capital city, Moscow. However, the Moscow soldiers were used to fighting in the bitter cold and snow, and the German soldiers were not. It was a quick, harsh winter that year, and Hitler s army got trapped in the cold and snow and lost many soldiers. Hitler s famous lightning war attacks failed when they reached the Soviet Union.
26 In 1940, Japan was also continuing its invasion on the Asian continent. They invaded Indochina, and American leaders were fearful that they might start moving their focus to other countries in the Pacific (like the Philippines which was a U.S. territory).
27 After WWI ended, many people felt that Americans should stay out of European wars and problems. FDR had promised Americans that he would keep them out of the war, but he wanted them to be ready if they got attacked. He initiated the first ever peacetime draft (the system that chose men to go to war).
28 The draft was a way to raise an army quickly. All men ages had to register for military service. America also started making war supplies like tanks and bombers and other weapons. They sent many of these goods, along with food, over to help Britain in its fight.
29 Now the United States was ready for war, but many still believed that we should stay out of it. However, something was soon to happen that would change most of the Americans minds BE BACK TOMORROW TO FIND OUT WHAT!!
30 EQ: Why does America join WWII?
31 Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, at 7:55 the sound of Japanese bomber planes flew over the Hawaiian islands. Three hundred of them dropped bombs on the American naval base, Pearl Harbor. They sunk/destroyed 18 ships and demolished 200 planes. All together, almost 4,000 people were killed or wounded in the attack 1,000 of them were on a ship called the USS Arizona.
34 Japan saw that the United States was getting all its supplies ready for war. They knew that war was coming, so they wanted to strike before America got stronger. They decided to attack the port at Pearl Harbor because they figured that would destroy most of our Pacific fleet and keep us from stopping their Asian invasion. (Read p. 18 in Point of Impact: Pearl Harbor)
35 Americans were sad, upset, and outraged! The day after the attack, FDR spoke to Congress. He called December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy one of his most famous lines in history. Congress declared war on the Axis powers the next day, and joined Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union s alliance called the Allies. Americans rally cry was Remember Pearl Harbor!
37 After Pearl Harbor, the United States started making more airplanes, tanks, and other war supplies. This gave many Americans jobs, and WWII officially ended the Great Depression in the United States.
38 Because men were going off to war, women were taking their jobs in the factories, fields, and offices. Some also went to serve in the military. They did various jobs like making maps, driving ambulances, and working as nurses and clerks. Some women even were trained to be pilots and flew airplanes from factories to airfields.
39 American women s new sense of pride was head up by a famous drawing of a working lady, called Rosie the Riveter. She represented all the hard-working women during WWII.
40 Another Rosie the Riveter
41 Also, around two million African Americans got jobs in factories during the war. Everyone was working together to make America s military strong.
42 When America went to war, the government gained more power in order to provide for their soldiers. They now controlled many businesses and set their prices and wages. Rationing (limiting what could be bought) also began so more supplies could be sent to soldiers overseas.
43 In order for Americans to get certain goods during the rationing that was taking place, they had to turn in coupons sent to them by the government. Without the coupons, people could not buy goods like butter, sugar, meat, heating oil, and gasoline.
44 Go here!
45 With America at war with Japan, some U.S. military leaders started to question the intentions of the Japanese Americans that were currently living in the United States. The leaders believed that they might try to help Japan invade the United States. So, in February 1942, President Roosevelt ordered the Army to put around 110,000 Japanese Americans in internment camps.
46 Internment camps were like prisons they were surrounded by barbed wire to keep everyone in and had soldiers with guns guarding all the doors. Even if these Japanese Americans were loyal citizens, they were required to sell all their belongings, homes, and businesses and move to internment camps.
47 However, over 17,000 other Japanese Americans were serving in the army, fighting for the United States. In fact, one group, the 442 nd Combat Team received more awards than any other unit its size in WWII.
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