1 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia Failures of the World War I Peace Settlement Treaty of Versailles causes anger, resentment in Europe Germany resents blame for war, loss of colonies, border territories Russia resents loss of lands used to create other nations New democracies flounder under social, economic problems Dictators rise; driven by nationalism, desire for more territory Continued...
2 1 continued Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia Joseph Stalin transforms the Soviet Union 1922 V. I. Lenin establishes Soviet Union after civil war 1924 Joseph Stalin takes over: - replaces private farms with collectives - creates second largest industrial power; famines kill millions - purges anyone who threatens his power; 8 13 million killed Totalitarian government exerts almost complete control over people Image Continued...
3 Joseph Stalin Communist leader Russia
4 1 continued Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia The Rise of Fascism in Italy Unemployment, inflation lead to bitter strikes, some communist-led Middle, upper classes want stronger leaders Fascism stresses nationalism, needs of state above individual Benito Mussolini plays on fears of economic collapse, communism Supported by government officials, police, army 1922 appointed head of government, establishes totalitarian state Image Continued...
5 Benito Mussolini Fascist Dictator Italy
6 1 continued Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia The Nazis Take Over Germany Adolf Hitler leader of National Socialist German Workers Party Mein Kampf basic beliefs of Nazism, based on extreme nationalism Wants to unite German-speaking people, enforce racial purification 1932, 6 million unemployed; many men join Hitler s private army Nazis become strongest political party; Hitler named chancellor Dismantles democratic Weimar Republic; establishes Third Reich Continued...
7 Adolf Hitler Fascist Leader Nazi Party Extreme Nationalist Germany
8 1 continued Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia Militarists Gain Control in Japan 1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria League of Nations condemns action; Japan quits League Militarists take control of Japanese government Aggression in Europe and Africa 1933, Hitler quits League; 1935, begins military buildup 1935, League fails to stop Mussolini s invasion of Ethiopia Map Continued...
9 1 continued Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia Civil War Breaks Out in Spain 1936, General Francisco Franco rebels against Spanish republic - Spanish Civil War begins Hitler, Mussolini back Franco; Stalin aids opposition - Western democracies remain neutral War leads to Rome-Berlin Axis alliance between Italy and Germany 1939, Franco wins war, becomes fascist dictator
10 Hitler and Mussolini Germany/Italy Rome-Berlin Axis Italy and Germany form an alliance
11 Section 2 War in Europe Using the sudden mass attack called blitzkrieg; Germany invades and quickly conquers many European countries.
12 2 War in Europe Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall Union with Austria Post WW I division of Austria-Hungary creates fairly small Austria Majority of Austrians are German, favor unification with Germany 1938, German troops march into Austria unopposed, union complete U.S., rest of world do nothing to stop Germany Interactive Continued...
13 2 continued Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall Bargaining for the Sudetenland Hitler wants to take Sudetenland (region of Czechoslovakia) Promises not to invade the rest of the region Prime minister of Britain tries to prevent war and Signs Munich Agreement, Will allow Hitler to take the Sudetenland if he promises NOT to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia Hitler not known as a man of his word Invades the rest in March 1939 France and Britain then promised if he invaded another country (target being Poland) that they WOULD take military action. Interactive
14 2 The German Offensive Begins The Soviet Union Declares Neutrality March 1939, German troops occupy rest of Czechoslovakia Hitler charges Poles mistreat Germans in Poland Many think he s bluffing; invading Poland would bring two-front war Stalin, Hitler sign nonaggression pact will not attack each other Sign second, secret pact agreeing to divide Poland between them Interactive Continued...
15 Non-Aggression Pact Hitler and Stalin Germany/Russia Secret agreement not to attack each other Divide Poland between them
17 Division of Poland Hitler would later go back on his agreement with Stalin and will attack Russia.
18 2 continued The German Offensive Begins Blitzkrieg in Poland Sept. 1939, Hitler overruns Poland in blitzkrieg, lightning war Germany annexes western Poland; U.S.S.R. attacks, annexes east France, Britain declare war on Germany; World War II begins Interactive
19 September 1, 1939 Hitler s blitzkrieg attack on Poland Beginning of WWII
20 2 France and Britain Fight On The Fall of France 1940, Italy invades France from south; Germans approach Paris France falls; Germans occupy northern France Nazi puppet government set up in southern France Interactive Continued...
21 Mussolini and Hitler s armies move in and occupy France
22 2 continued France and Britain Fight On The Battle of Britain Summer 1940, Germany prepares fleet to invade Britain Battle of Britain German planes bomb British targets Britain uses radar to track, shoot down German planes Hitler calls off invasion of Britain Germans, British continue to bomb each other s cities Image
23 Battle of Britain Hitler wants to take Britain Was an air-battle Radar= new invention Germany will eventually call off attack
24 Axis powers begin to invade North Africa Hitler takes the Balkans in southeastern Europe Now he can break the non-aggression pact and invade Russia!
25 Section 3 The Holocaust During the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically execute 6 million Jews and 5 million other non-aryans.
26 3 The Holocaust The Persecution Begins Jews Targeted Europe has long history of anti-semitism Germans believe Hitler s claims, blame Jews for problems Nazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; require Star of David Holocaust murder of 11 million people, more than half are Jews Kristallnacht Kristallnacht Nazis attack Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues About 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested Continued... Image
27 Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass November 9, 1939
28 3 continued The Persecution Begins A Flood of Jewish Refugees 1938, Nazis try to speed up Jewish emigration France has 40,000 refugees, Britain 80,000; both refuse more U.S. takes 100,000, many persons of exceptional merit Americans fear strain on economy, enemy agents; much anti-semitism The Plight of the St. Louis Coast Guard prevents passengers on St. Louis from disembarking Ship forced to return to Europe; most passengers killed in Holocaust
29 3 Hitler s Final Solution The Condemned Hitler s Final Solution slavery, genocide of inferior groups Genocide deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah s Witnesses, unfit Germans Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them Forced Relocation Jews forced into ghettos, segregated areas in Polish cities Some form resistance movements; others maintain Jewish culture Image Continued...
31 3 continued Hitler s Final Solution Concentration Camps Many Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps - families often separated Camps originally prisons; given to SS to warehouse undesirables Prisoners crammed into wooden barracks, given little food Work dawn to dusk, 7 days per week Those too weak to work are killed Image
32 Starvation conditions in concentration camps
33 Children at Auschwitz death camp
34 3 The Final Stage Mass Exterminations Germans build death camps; gas chambers used to kill thousands On arrival, SS doctors separate those who can work Those who can t work immediately killed in gas chamber At first bodies buried in pits; later cremated to cover up evidence Some are shot, hanged, poisoned, or die from experiments Image Continued...
35 Shoes from Auschwitz
36 3 continued The Final Stage The Survivors About 6 million Jews killed in death camps, massacres Some escape, many with help from ordinary people Some survive concentration camps - survivors forever changed by experience
37 Section 4 America Moves Toward War In response to the fighting in Europe, the United States provides economic and military aid to help the Allies achieve victory.
38 4 America Moves Toward War The United States Musters Its Forces Moving Cautiously Away from Neutrality 1939, FDR persuades Congress to pass cashand-carry provision Argues will help France, Britain defeat Hitler, keep U.S. out of war The Axis Threat 1940, FDR tries to provide Britain all aid short of war Germany, Japan, Italy sign Tripartite Pact, mutual defense treaty - become known as Axis Powers Pact aimed at keeping U.S. out of war by forcing fight on two oceans Continued...
39 4 continued The United States Musters Its Forces Building U.S. Defenses Nazi victories in 1940 lead to increased U.S. defense spending First peacetime draft enacted Selective Training and Service Act: - draftees to serve for 1 year in Western Hemisphere only Roosevelt Runs for a Third Term FDR breaks two-term tradition, runs for reelection Republican Wendell Willkie has similar views on war FDR reelected with 55% of votes
40 4 The Great Arsenal of Democracy The Lend-Lease Plan FDR tells nation if Britain falls, Axis powers free to conquer world - U.S. must become arsenal of democracy By late 1940, Britain has no more cash to buy U.S. arms 1941 Lend-Lease Act U.S. to lend or lease supplies for defense Supporting Stalin 1941, Hitler breaks pact with Stalin, invades Soviet Union Roosevelt sends lend-lease supplies to Soviet Union Image Continued...
41 4 continued The Great Arsenal of Democracy German Wolf Packs Hitler deploys U-boats to attack supply convoys Wolf packs groups of up to 40 submarines patrol North Atlantic - sink supply ships FDR allows navy to attack German U-boats in selfdefense Interactive
42 4 FDR Plans for War The Atlantic Charter FDR s proposal to extend the term of draftees passes House by 1 vote FDR, Churchill issue Atlantic Charter joint declaration of war aims Charter is basis of A Declaration of the United Nations or Allies Allies nations that fight Axis powers; 26 nations sign Declaration Chart Shoot on Sight Germans fire on U.S. ship, FDR orders navy to shoot U-boats on sight U-boat attacks lead Senate to repeal ban on arming merchant ships
43 4 Japan Attacks the United States Japan s Ambitions in the Pacific Hideki Tojo chief of staff of army that invades China, prime minister Japan seizes French bases in Indochina; U.S. cuts off trade Japan needs oil from U.S. or must take Dutch East Indies oil fields Interactive Peace Talks are Questioned 1941 U.S. breaks Japanese codes; learns Japan planning to attack U.S. Peace talks with Japan last about 1 month December 6, Japanese envoy instructed to reject all U.S. proposals Continued...
44 4 continued Japan Attacks the United States The Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor 2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged Reaction to Pearl Harbor Congress approves FDR s request for declaration of war against Japan Germany, Italy declare war on U.S. U.S. unprepared to fight in both Atlantic, Pacific Oceans Interactive Chart
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