VUS. 5 (pt. 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution

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1 Name: Date: Period: VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 1

2 Objectives about Title VUS5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by c) examining the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in the framing of the Bill of Rights; d) assessing the arguments of Federalists and Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates and their relevance to political debate today; e) appraising how John Marshall s precedent-setting decisions established the Supreme Court as an independent and equal branch of the national government Ratifying the Constitution Main Idea: During the debate on the Constitution, the Federalists promised to add a bill of rights in order to get the Constitution ratified Why it Matters: The Bill of Rights continues to protect ordinary citizens Federalists and Anti-Federalists I Controversies over the Constitution 1 Many shocked by the new Constitution and all the power it gave the new government 2 Ratification def II Federalists def 1 Leaders 2 Favored new balance between federal and state governments 3 Favored new system of separation of powers and checks and balances a They argued it would protect Americans from the tyranny of centralized authority 4 Supporters 5 The Federalist Papers def a Written by III Antifederalists def 1 Leaders 2 Opposed to such a a feared an 3 Supporters Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 2

3 The Bill of Rights Leads to Ratification I Bill of Rights def 1 Antifederalists refused to support the constitution unless 2 Drafted by a Drew some of his ideas from George Mason s Virginia Declaration of Rights Supported the notion that basic human rights should not be violated by governments b Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom by Thomas Jefferson Outlawed an established church, the idea that the government should support a certain religion II The First 10 Amendments 1 First Amendment 2 Second Amendment the right to 3 Third Amendment freedom from quartering of troops 4 Fourth Amendment freedom from 5 Fifth Amendment no one is subject to double jeopardy (tried twice for the same crime); all persons are protected against self-incrimination 6 Sixth Amendment a person accused of a crime has the right to be tried 7 Seventh Amendment the right to a trial by jury is guaranteed in any civil case in a federal court if the amount of money involved in that case exceeds $20 8 Eighth Amendment prohibition of 9 Ninth Amendment people s rights are not limited to those listed in the Constitution 10 Tenth Amendment the people and the States have all the powers not given to the national government Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 3

4 Washington Heads the New Government Main Idea: President Washing transformed the ideas of the Constitution into a real government Why it Matters: The Cabinet, an intuition Washing created, is still a key element of every presidential administration The New Government Takes Shape I The capital was set in II Washington and the Executive Branch 1 President 2 Vice President 3 Cabinet a Secretary of State (Foreign Affairs) b Secretary of the Treasury c Secretary of War (Defense) Henry Knox III Judiciary Act of 1789 def Hamilton and Jefferson Debate I Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) 1 Favored concentrating power a Feared mob rule 2 Wanted a republic led by 3 Favored a of the Constitution 4 Believed the economy should be based on 5 Supporters: merchants, manufacturers, landowners, investors, lawyers, and clergy Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 4

5 II Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State) 1 Preferred 2 Had a fear of 3 Wanted a democracy of 4 Believed the economy should be based on 5 Supporters: farmers, tradespeople III Plan for National Bank 1 Debate over whether there should be a national bank led to a supported the National Bank Supported through a loose interpretation of the Constitution b argued the National Bank would favor the wealthy Favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution If it isn t in the Constitution, you cannot do it 2 Hamilton a Wanted the national government to assume the debts of the states b Then have wealthy investors pay off those debts (would strengthen the tie between the national government and wealthy) c Claimed it d Southern states didn t like it, so to make them happy he proposed e worked The First Political Parties and Rebellion I President Washington tried to avoid factions and political parties, but almost always sided with Hamilton II Federalists and Democratic-Republicans 1 Federalists followers of a Shared his vision of a strong central government Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 5

6 2 Republicans (Democratic-Republicans) followers of a Supported his vision of strong State Governments III Whiskey Rebellion , Congress passed an excise tax def 2 Whiskey farmers were small frontier farmers Farmers in western Pennsylvania a Threatened secession and beat up federal marshals in Pittsburgh 4 led a federal militia to put down the rebellion a Demonstrated the power of the new central government Foreign Affairs Trouble the New Nation Main Idea: Events in Europe sharply divided American public opinion the late 18 th century Why it Matters: Foreign policy remains a key element of every presidential administration US Response to Events in Europe I The French Revolution 1 The revolution in France ended up being a war between France and Britain 2 wanted to honor France s support during the Revolution 3 wanted to support the British 4 Washington Neutrality Act of 1793 Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 6

7 II Treaty with Spain 1 Spain controlled Florida and land west of the Mississippi and New Orleans a Blocked trade access to the new US 2 a Fearing an American-British alliance, Spain agreed to meet with us 3 Pinckney s Treaty (1795) Native Americans I Battle of Fallen Timbers 1 Native Americans were never considered in the Treaty of Paris (1782) and 2 Fought battles against federal forces, 3 British still had forces in some of the forts and the Native Americans favored the British 4 Jay s Treaty (1794) 5 Western settlers and Democratic-Republicans II Washington s Farewell Address 1 The fight over Jay s Treaty and divisions of the political parties convinced George Washington to only serve two terms 2 Advised the nation that 3 Also argued that the US should avoid John Adams I Election of Adams won, which left Jefferson as vice-president 3 Adams won the North, Jefferson won the South which led to sectionalism def Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 7

8 II XYZ Affair (1798) 1 Adams wanted to avoid war with France (powerful now) and sent a delegation of 3 men to meet with French foreign minister 2 The minister sent 3 low level delegates, 3 Was an insult and created a wave of anti-french feeling in the US 4 Unofficial naval war between US and France III Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) 1 Passed by the government who thought French spies were everywhere 2 Alien Acts 3 Sedition Act 4 Many Republican printers and newspaper editors ended up in jail for criticizing the government IV Virginia and Kentucky resolutions (1798) 1 Jefferson and Madison s reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts 2 Claimed they 3 Argued in favor of nullification def V Washington s Death 1 George Washington died in 1799 after catching a severe cold 2 Napoleon declared 10 days of mourning Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 8

9 Adams and Jefferson Washington retired in 1797, firmly declining to serve for more than eight years as the nation's head Thomas Jefferson of Virginia (Republican) and John Adams (Federalist) vied to succeed him Adams won a narrow election victory From the beginning, however, he was at the head of a party and an administration divided between his backers and those of his rival, Hamilton Adams faced serious international difficulties France, angered by Jay's treaty with Britain, adopted its definition of contraband and began to seize American ships headed for Britain By 1797 France had snatched 300 American ships and broken off diplomatic relations with the United States When Adams sent three commissioners to Paris to negotiate, agents of Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (whom Adams labeled X, Y, and Z in his report to Congress) informed the Americans that negotiations could only begin if the United States loaned France $12 million and bribed officials of the French government American hostility to France rose to an excited pitch The so-called XYZ Affair led to the enlistment of troops and the strengthening of the fledgling US Navy In 1799, after a series of sea battles with the French, war seemed inevitable In this crisis, Adams rejected the guidance of Hamilton, who wanted war, and reopened negotiations with France Napoleon, who had just come to power, received them cordially The danger of conflict subsided with the negotiation of the Convention of 1800, which formally released the United States from its 1778 defense alliance with France However, reflecting American weakness, France refused to pay $20 million in compensation for American ships taken by the French Navy Hostility to France had led Congress to pass the Alien and Sedition Acts, which had severe repercussions for American civil liberties The Naturalization Act, which changed the requirement for citizenship from five to 14 years, was targeted at Irish and French immigrants suspected of supporting the Republicans The Alien Act, operative for two years only, gave the president the power to expel or imprison aliens in time of war The Sedition Act proscribed writing, speaking, or publishing anything of "a false, scandalous, and malicious" nature against the president or Congress The few convictions won under it created martyrs to the cause of civil liberties and aroused support for the Republicans The acts met with resistance Jefferson and Madison sponsored the passage of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions by the legislatures of these two states in November and December 1798 Extreme declaration of states' rights, the resolutions asserted that states could "interpose" their views on federal actions and "nullify" them The doctrine of nullification would be used later for the Southern states' resistance to protective tariffs, and, more ominously, slavery By 1800 the American people were ready for a change Under Washington and Adams, the Federalists had established a strong government, but sometimes failing to honor the principle that the American government must be responsive to the will of the people, they had followed policies that alienated large groups For example, in 1798 they had enacted a tax on houses, land, and slaves, affecting every property owner in the country Jefferson had steadily gathered behind him a great mass of small farmers, shopkeepers, and other workers He won a close victory in a contested election Jefferson enjoyed extraordinary favor because of his appeal to American idealism In his inaugural address, the first such speech in the new capital of Washington, DC, he promised "a wise and frugal government" that would preserve order among the inhabitants but leave people otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry, and improvement" Jefferson's mere presence in the White House encouraged democratic procedures He preached and practiced democratic simplicity, eschewing much of the pomp and ceremony of the presidency In line with Republican ideology, he sharply cut military expenditures Believing America to be a haven for the oppressed, he secured a liberal naturalization law By the end of his second term, his far-sighted secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin, had reduced the national debt to less than $560 million Widely popular, Jefferson won reelection as president easily 1 What Federalist became the 2 nd president of the US 2 Summarize the events of the XYZ Affair 3 Who ruled France at the time of the Convention of 1800? 4 What di the Naturalization Act do? 5 What did the Alien Act do? 6 True or False: The Sedition Act forbade writing, speaking, or publishing anything of a false, scandalous, and malicious nature against the president or Congress 7 What is nullification? 8 Who served as 3 rd president of the US? Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 9

10 Glossary VUS 5 (pt 2) Directions: Fill in the definition for the term listed Then, in the box on the right, you have to draw a picture OR write the definition in your own words OR write a sentence using the word that demonstrates its meeting ratification Federalists Antifederalists Bill of Rights Judiciary Act of 1789 Cabinet Excise Tax Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 10

11 Glossary VUS 5 (pt 2) Directions: Fill in the definition for the term listed Then, in the box on the right, you have to draw a picture OR write the definition in your own words OR write a sentence using the word that demonstrates its meeting Pinckney s Treaty Jay s Treaty sectionalism XYZ Affair Alien and Sedition Acts Nullification Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 11

12 Summary DIRECTIONS: Choose only one of the following: a) write a summary (25-75 words) of what you believe was the most important aspect of the notes/lecture b) write what you believe to be the most interesting or memorable part of the notes/lecture (25-75 words) c) draw something that symbolizes the notes/lecture to you (has to be different than your title page) Notes VUS 5 (pt 2): Building a New Nation: Ratifying the Constitution 12

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