The Washington Presidency and Political Rivalaries. Chapter 6 Sections 1 & 2

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1 Bell Ringer: Take out paper for notes. On your paper, answer the following review questions: Name the 4 executive departments established by Congress. Name the 4 people that headed each department. Match the person with the correct department. What was the purpose of the national bank? Why was Washington D.C. selected as the nation s capital?

2 The Washington Presidency and Political Rivalaries Chapter 6 Sections 1 & 2

3 Washington s Foreign Policy The French Revolution began in 1789 and most Americans, such as Thomas Jefferson, initially supported their fight against authoritative leadership Many Americans abandoned their support of the French Revolution when The Reign of Terror led to excessive violence and bloody executions War broke out between France and American trading partner Britain President Washington chose to remain friendly and impartial toward both France and Britain

4 Avoiding War With Britain British began seizing all neutral ships carrying goods to French ports British enticed Native Americans to attack American western settlements Congress on the brink of war by 1794 Washington was aware that the young American nation need to avoid another war at all costs so he sent John Jay to negotiate a peace with Britain Jay s Treaty (British upper hand trade!) Britain maintained the right to seize cargoes bound for French ports and no compensation was given to American merchants British gave the U.S. most-favored nation status trade between U.S. and Britain would continue without discrimination Many Americans rejected the pro-british treaty and the weakness of the American government Washington signed the treaty to prevent war with Britain and to protect the weak American economy

5 Western Issues Spain joined France in war against Britain and wanted to negotiate with the U.S. to prevent a war with America Pinckney s Treaty Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina sent to negotiate Treaty granted the U.S. the right to navigate the Mississippi River and deposit goods at the port of New Orleans Western farmers were pleased with the treaty As Americans settled west of the Appalachians, Native American tribes (Miami, Shawnee, Delaware) attacked settlements and American troops President Washington sent General Anthony Wayne to defeat the Indians Wayne won the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1795 and forced Native Americans to sign the Treaty of Greenville Gave up parts of modern Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan Flow of Americans increase in the region and new states established

6 The Legacy of George Washington By 1796, President Washington made a personal decision that serving 2 terms was long enough for any 1 person to be President (all other presidents follow example until FDR 4 terms) Washington s Farewell Address: Avoid sectionalism (North vs. South, East vs. West) Avoid partisan politics (political parties) Maintain neutrality with other nations Keep morality and ethics at the heart of government Significance of George Washington Symbol of the American Revolution His popularity and leadership held the young nation together through the growing pains Wisdom Avoided what could have been a disastrous war with Britain and left the nation with enduring fatherly advice Humility Popular enough to declare himself emperor and rule the nation indefinitely but humble enough to surrender his power (after Revolutionary War and 2 nd Presidential term) and return to his Virginia plantation Republic/Constitution greater than the Leader/Person

7 The First Political Parties With Washington stepping down, the presidential vacancy led to a political struggle between two rival factions: Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton Strong national government Power should be in the hands of the wealthy and educated Government should promote manufacturing Loose interpretation of the Constitution Protective tariffs protect domestic industries Pro-British international policies Democratic-Republicans Led by Thomas Jefferson State governments supreme Ruling power should be given to all landowners Government should promote agriculture Strict interpretation of the Constitution Protective tariffs burden farmers Pro-French international policies

8 Election of The Federalists chose John Adams (Massachusetts) as their presidential candidate -The Democratic- Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson (Virginia) as their presidential candidate -Adams and Jefferson had a long history of friendship but contrasting political views -Adams defeated Jefferson 71 to 68 electoral votes to become the 2 nd President of the United States

9 Trouble with France Angered over Jay s Treaty, France began stopping American ships bound for Britain and seizing their goods Adams, like Washington, attempted to keep the U.S. out of a major war XYZ Affair President Adams sent Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to negotiate with France After weeks of waiting, the French minister of foreign affairs asked for a bribe of $250,000 just to initiate talks and an additional $12 million loan from America The American diplomats denied the offer and returned home The French agents were called X, Y, and Z

10 Political Rivalries Congress suspended trade with France and directed the U.S. Navy to capture armed French ships No official war was declared with France but a Quasi-War existed at sea Federalists pushed Alien and Sedition Acts through Congress in retaliation to Republican criticisms Required aliens (people living in the country that are not citizens) to wait 14 years before becoming citizens Gave the President power to deport any alien without trial that was deemed dangerous Prevented sedition (incitement to rebellion) by making it illegal to print or utter anything false, scandalous, or malicious against the federal government Virginia legislature introduced the theory of interposition (states had the right to interpose between the people and the federal govt. if federal laws/policies prove unconstitutional) Kentucky legislature introduced the theory of nullification (states had the right to nullify or declare invalid any federal law that was unconstitutional)

11 Election of 1800 President Adams longtime friend, Vice-President, and political rival Thomas Jefferson began a mudsmearing campaign from within Adams Alien and Sedition Acts and new tax policies created resentment Thomas Jefferson (President) and Aaron Burr (Vice- President) ran as the Republican nominees Jefferson and Burr tied (73) in the Electoral College while Adams came in third (65) A flaw in the system was revealed because each member supporting the Republicans cast one vote for Jefferson and one for Burr The Electoral College did not vote for a Jefferson-Burr ticket but rather the 2 nd place finisher was made Vice President The Federalist-controlled House of Representatives had to then choose the president from the two

12 Turning Point in Government Alexander Hamilton despised Aaron Burr and rallied the Federalists behind Thomas Jefferson Jefferson won the election and became the third president Significance of the Election of 1800 Represented a peaceful transfer of power Federalists had controlled the army, the presidency, and the Congress Longtime friends/rivals Jefferson and Adams refused to speak for years Adams felt betrayed A political feud began between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton that would ultimately result in one of their deaths

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