Monroe, Chapter 3 Federalism Monroe, Chapter 9 (part) Parties. Exam I Wednesday. Friday: Ellis & Nelson, Chpt 10.

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1 Monroe, Chapter 3 Federalism Monroe, Chapter 9 (part) Parties Exam I Wednesday Friday: Ellis & Nelson, Chpt 10. Party nominations

2 I. Political Parties Why Parties? What do Parties do? How do parties resolve problems of "Madisonian Democracy?" Why usually just two main US parties? A. Parties, defined: A group that seeks to elect candidates to office by supplying them w/ a label A broad coalition of interests (factions) NOT an interest group (or single faction) A Solution to collective action problems contesting election promoting policy goals

3 1) Madison (1780s): feared majority faction of property owners designed constitution to choke parties, not outlaw irony: without parties, system might fail 2) E.E. Schattchneider (1950s): Madison wrong about political parties: wrong about how interests are mobilized people have many different, cross-cutting interests impossible to form unanimous (tyrannical) party parties organized around broad, common interests Law of imperfect mobilization of interests diversity of interests = party cant act easily (kind of like Madison's idea of extended republic)

4 II. Three General Functions of Political Parties A. Party in Government a set of leaders who control and organize the institutions of government majority caucus of people w/ similar goals rules of conducting business communication between houses coordinate activity across levels of government deal with fragmentation of institutions requires certain level of discipline over rank and file party unity

5 B. Party as Organization / Bureacracy machinery dedicated to winning elections recruit/nominate candidates to run under label Conventions, primaries develop policy "platform"

6 finance campaigns Republican National Committee Democratic National Committee Dem Congressional Campaign Com. Dem Senatorial Campaign Com. Republican National Congressional Com. WA State Dem Central Com. WA State Republican Party supply labor for campaigns mobilize supporters expand popular base of support System of rewarding supporters to maintain loyalty Traditional party organization: material rewards patronage/spoils system Modern party organizations: Fund campaigns money laundering machines

7 C. Party in Electorate Facilitates election choices brand-name identification in mind of voter long-term, socialized loyalty that rarely changes for voter Projecting, filtering long-term balance of support for parties organizing principle to political behavior Staight-ticket voting what if people have no party loyalties,? what if loyalties of all in constant flux? about 65% ID w/ one of major parties

8

9 D. Legal Status of Parties 1. Not in Constitution (not banned, not planned) 2. Private actors with self-regulating power Parties nominate general election candidates is a primary election private or public? National parties ignore Washington s Presidential primaries 3. Courts say states have legitimate interest in protecting a "two party" system E. Early History 1. Why did parties form? a) Do business in legislature (late 1700s) parties put together majority votes on bills universalism: super-majority on each bill distribute stuff to each legislator OR, win with 50% + 1 minimum winning coalition

10 costs less, winners get more requires organization, discipline b) Contest elections: (1820s) mobilize voters recruit candidates raise resources spread information to win requires broad-based support cant pass policies if not in office F. US Major Party History = Six Different Systems of 2 Party Competition PARTY SYSTEM as long-term balance of power between 2 parties Often one clear majority party, one minority party Majority party may dominate for decades OR, Majority and minority change control of government Each party retains same coalitional base during period

11 1. First political parties in US First party system = The Jeffersonian Era Pre-modern parties Parties as caucuses of elites Federalists v. Democratic Republicans ( ) Federalists largely gone after 1812 Federalists: pro-gb, tariffs, Bank of US, commerce Northeast states Dems Reps (Jefferson): France agricultural popular democracy state sovereignty South & West 2. Mass-based parties form latter (post 1820s) local voter-based organizations broad slates of candidates for different races contest local, state, and national races recruitment, assistance to candidates

12 national nominating conventions for President 3x more voters in 1828 than 1824 Extension of franchise (Age of Jackson) not until 1830s 2nd party system Democrats v Whigs ( ) The Jacksonian Era Democrats dominant Origin of 'modern' mass-based parties Whig coalition = free-soil pro manufacturing commerce, northern states tariff infrastructure development stronger national powers Democrat coalition = pro slave some anti slave agricultural strong in South state sovereignty anti-tariff

13 3rd system = Republicans (GOP) v. Democrats ( ) Reconstruction Era No clear majority party, Republicans won more Age of the Urban Party Machines GOP coalition = anti-slave Democrats free-soil Whigs pro-union (anti-confederacy) commercial, industrial Southern Blacks Democratic coalition = white Southern farmers western Populists some urban Catholics (more latter) 4th system = Republicans v Democrats ( ) Industrial Republican Era Republicans dominant Anti-party reforms adopted Republicans = commercial interests Progressive reformers Pro gold standard East and West

14 Protestant some urban workers Democrats = agricultural Free Silver (west) Labor Immigrants South Third Parties: Populists Prohibition Progressives Socialists 5th system = Democrats v Republicans ( ) New Deal Era Democrats dominant Class-based parties Democrats= Labor Northern blacks, Southern whites Catholics Urban Republicans =

15 commercial Small business middle class Northeast 6th system = Democrats v. Republicans (1972 today??) Divided Government Rise of ideology Decline of partisanship? No majority party until 2008 Democrats= Coastal (east & west) Urban Blacks Ethnic minorities Public service unions Republicans= Rural White Protestant Southern whites

16 Mountain west what long term balance of power now? who is the majority party? who is the minority party?

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