***POLITICAL PARTIES*** DEFINITION: A group of politicians, activists, and voters who seek to win elections and control government.

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2 ***POLITICAL PARTIES*** DEFINITION: A group of politicians, activists, and voters who seek to win elections and control government. Ex: Democrat, Republican, Whig, Libertarian

3 KEY FUNCTIONS OF MODERN POLITICAL PARTIES Recruit and nominate candidates Educate and mobilize voters (Get out the vote) Provide campaign funds and support Organize government activity (Dividing government into camps)

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5 PARTY STRUCTURE Both the Democrat and Republican parties are structured the same. THE ELECTORATE Voters who identify with a party and vote accordingly. CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE Provides funding to party members running for House and Senate seats Much of the funding is ***SOFT MONEY*** which is given to the party to spend how it sees fit

6 NATIONAL COMMITTEE Composed of delegates from the states & territories They elect a chairman who manages the affairs of the party. DNC & RNC NATIONAL CONVENTION Held every four years in a select city where delegates vote to nominate a presidential candidate

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8 ***POLITICAL MACHINE*** DEFINITION Primarily state & local party organizations that recruit members by offering money, political jobs and government favors AKA ***PATRONAGE***. EX: Giving key jobs or contracts to individuals or companies in exchange for voter mobilization

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10 FIRST PARTY SYSTEM 1790s The divide between Federalists and Anti-Federalists over ratification of the Constitution led to the two-party system: Committed to a powerful federal government Favored a National Bank, Tariffs, and Good Relations with Britain Supported Implied Powers(Necessary & Proper Clause)

11 DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS Committed to the rights of states, the primacy of farmers, and the principles of republicanism (liberty and inalienable rights) Wanted good relations with France, not Britain Opposed the ideas of a National Bank or implied powers

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13 SECOND PARTY SYSTEM DEMOCRATS 1828 Farmers and smallbusiness owners unite behind Andrew Jackson. Form the Democrat Party Jackson claimed he represented the common man and favored southern and western interests.

14 1828 Non-followers of Jackson formed the National Republican Party aka Whig Party. Represented northern business interests and abolitionists. Abolitionists, leave the Whigs; re-formed with the Free-Soilers and ex-democrats as the Republican Party in Lincoln elected as the first Republican POTUS. In 1860.

15 DEMOCRATIC PARTY TODAY Hold generally liberal economic and social views. ESTABLISHMENT Liberal political elites like the Clintons, Kennedys, Obamas plus corporate and Hollywood donors. BASE Remnants of the ***New Deal Coalition***: Urban working class, Blacks, Jews, Catholics, Academic Left, LGBTQ community

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17 REPUBLICAN PARTY (GOP) TODAY Generally hold conservative social and economic views. ESTABLISHMENT Moderate politicians and Wall Street donors who favor compromise with the Left and playing the part of the ***Loyal Opposition*** in order to advance their interests. BASE Coalition of core conservatives, libertarians and Evangelical Christians

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19 TEA PARTY Fiscally conservative faction of the GOP Emerged in in response to runaway spending in the G.W. Bush & Obama administrations. Believe government power, taxation and spending have gotten out of control. Favor drastic spending and tax cuts, term limits and oversight.

20 THIRD PARTIES (MINOR PARTIES) TYPES IDEOLOGICAL: Seek fundamental change in American society. EX: Libertarian Party, CPUSA, Green Party etc. ONE-ISSUE: Seek single-policy change EX: Prohibition Party, Marijuana Party ECONOMIC INTEREST: Short-lived, regional protest against economic conditions. EX: Populist Party FACTIONAL PARTIES: Split off from a major party. EX: Bull Moose Progressive Party Reform Party

21 WHY DON T THIRD PARTIES WIN? (Three reasons) I. If 3 rd parties become popular, the major parties adopt their ideas as their own. II. Election Rules Commission on Presidential Debates ruled that a candidate has to poll 15% or above in five major polls in order to be included in presidential debates. State party organizations set the rules for how to get on the ballot. EX: 3 RD Parties often need more signatures

22 III. ***PLURALITY/WINNER-TAKE-ALL SYSTEM*** The candidate who gets the most votes wins/typically one of the major party candidates. Most of Europe uses a ***PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATON SYSTEM***which awards seats based upon the percentage of the vote the party receives = More parties participate Popular third party candidates can change the outcome of elections by siphoning votes from major party candidates (1912, 1992).

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