Political Parties. Shannon Stapleton/Reuters. Copyright 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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1 Political Parties 8 Shannon Stapleton/Reuters

2 Warm-Up Activity 1. What policy differences are found between Democrats and Republicans? What social groups tend to identify more with the Democratic party? 3. What social groups tend to identify more with the Republican party? 4. What party do the younger age group tend to identify with?

3 Identify the functions that political parties perform in American democracy.

4 Meaning of Party 8.1 Tasks of the Parties Parties, Voters, and Policy: The Downs Model

5 Tasks of the Parties 8.1 Parties pick candidates Parties run campaigns Parties give cues to voters Parties articulate policies Parties coordinate policymaking

6 Parties, Voters, and Policy: The Downs Model 8.1 Rational-choice theory Political scientist Anthony Downs model Most voters are moderate Center of political spectrum Parties seek voter loyalty Position themselves to left and right of center

7 FIGURE 8.1 The Downs model: How rational parties position themselves near (but not at) the center of public opinion 8.1 continued on next slide

8 FIGURE 8.1 The Downs model: How rational parties position themselves near (but not at) the center of public opinion 8.1

9 8.1 How do parties maximize their appeal to voters? 8.1 a. Position themselves near political center b. Lie about their opponents c. Stake out clear positions to the left or right d. Make party members sign loyalty oaths

10 8.1 How do parties maximize their appeal to voters? 8.1 a. Position themselves near political center b. Lie about their opponents c. Stake out clear positions to the left or right d. Make party members sign loyalty oaths

11 Determine the significance of party identification in America today.

12 Political Party Identification

13 The Party in the Electorate 8.2 Party membership is psychological Citizens think they know what parties stand for Choose parties based on affinity with personal preferences More Americans identify as independents

14 FIGURE 8.2 Party identification in the United States,

15 Political Identification Demographics

16 Describe how political parties are organized in the United States.

17 The Party Organization: From the Grass Roots to Washington 8.3 Local Parties The 50 State Party Systems The National Party Organizations

18 Local Parties 8.3 Once main party organization Party machines Rewarded voters New York and Chicago Patronage Jobs for voters and contributors Progressive reforms ended this system

19 Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley 8.3 Walter Bennett/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

20 The 50 State Party Systems 8.3 No two exactly alike Some well-funded, some weak Permanent headquarters Provide technical services Open or closed primaries Straight-ticket voting Single column or random list of candidates

21 The National Party 8.3 Organizations National convention Meets every four years Writes party platform Formal nomination of candidates National committee Operates between conventions Led by national chairperson

22 8.3 What are the functions of the party s national convention? 8.3 a. Write party platform b. Nominate candidate for president c. Meet every four years to revise rules d. All of the above

23 8.3 What are the functions of the party s national convention? 8.3 a. Write party platform b. Nominate candidate for president c. Meet every four years to revise rules d. All of the above

24 Evaluate how well political parties generally do in carrying out their promises.

25 The Party in Government: Promises and Policy 8.4 Party in power determines policy Coalitions support parties Most presidents fail to implement campaign promises But they do live up to some of them Party platforms are blueprints

26 8.4 Which of the following is a campaign promise kept by President Reagan? 8.4 a. Increase social welfare spending b. Increase defense spending c. Increase the federal deficit d. Increase funding for education

27 8.4 Which of the following is a campaign promise kept by President Reagan? 8.4 a. Increase social welfare spending b. Increase defense spending c. Increase the federal deficit d. Increase funding for education

28 Differentiate the various party eras in American history.

29 Party Eras in American History 8.5 VIDEO : The First Party System : Jackson and Democrats Versus the Whigs : The Two Republican Eras : The New Deal Coalition 1968 Present: Southern Realignment and the Era of Divided Party Government

30

31 : The First Party 8.5 System Madison warned against factions Hamilton and the Federalist Party Capitalist support, Northeast Short-lived Ideas of loyal opposition and rotation of power new Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans Agrarian support, South Torn by factions

32 : Jackson and 8.5 Democrats Versus the Whigs General Andrew Jackson as leader Democratic-Republicans v. Democratic Party New coalition in election of 1828 Westerners, Southerners, poor whites Broaden suffrage Martin Van Buren Theory of loyal opposition Whig Party

33 : The Two 8.5 Republican Eras 1850s: Slavery dominated politics Split both parties Republicans rose as anti-slavery party Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War Second party realignment Lasted 60 years Democrats controlled the South 1896: Second Republican era Democrats and free silver

34 : The New Deal 8.5 Coalition Hoover loses to FDR FDR promises New Deal New coalition formed Elements of New Deal coalition Urban dwellers Labor unions Catholics and Jews The poor Southerners African Americans

35 The Roosevelt realignment 8.5 The Granger Collection, NYC

36 FIGURE 8.3 Party coalitions today 8.5

37 1968-Present: Southern 8.5 Realignment and the Era of Divided Party Government Nixon s Southern strategy Support for states rights, law and order, strong military posture Win Southern Democrats

38 FIGURE 8.4 Realignment in the South 8.5

39 1968-Present: Southern Realignment and the Era of Divided Party Government 8.5 Republicans did not have Congress New pattern Divided government now normal Dealignment

40 Table 8.1 Party platforms, continued on next slide

41 Table 8.1 Party platforms,

42 8.5 Which events sparked party realignments? 8.5 a. Civil War b. Great Depression c. Nixon s Southern strategy d. A and B only

43 8.5 Which events sparked party realignments? 8.5 a. Civil War b. Great Depression c. Nixon s Southern strategy d. A and B only

44 The Party s Over Exit Slip 8.7 Read the following excerpt from The Party s Over by David Broder. Answer the Check Your Understanding questions on your own sheet of notebook paper. Hand to me as you leave the classroom

45 Assess both the impact of third parties on American politics and their limitations.

46 3 Types of Party Systems 8.6 Single Party Two Party Multi Party

47 Party Systems 8.6 One-Party Only one exists or has a valid chance of winning an election Usually membership is not voluntary Actual members represent a small portion of population Voter has very little input Results in a dictatorial style government

48 Party Systems 8.6 Two-Party May be more than 2 but only 2 dominate elections Especially at national level Voters are given an either or choice which simplifies things Tends to Enhance government stability Promote moderate policy so candidates can appeal to more of the electorate

49 Party Systems 8.6 Multi-Party Many parties compete and have a good chance at winning Often found in European nations Result of a proportional voting system The % of votes you got = the % of seats your party gets Can have difficulties: no one party gains a clear majority parties form coalitions Tends to cause instability

50 What about 3 rd parties? 8.6 Video

51 Human Nature and the wasted voted

52 Third Parties: Their Impact 8.6 on American Politics Three types of third parties Cause parties Offshoots of major parties Vehicles for individual candidacies Rarely win office but can affect elections Why only two parties? Two Party system VIDEO

53 A successful third party candidate 8.6 Neno Images/PhotoEdit, Inc.

54 Plurality v Proportional Read the following article Plurality v Proportional Representation: Which is Better? Pick a system Debate Activity: As a group, discuss arguments/reasons for your choice and think about arguments the other side may make against you. In a RESPECTFUL manner we will have a debate over the two systems. One side at a time will express their arguments for their choice and against the other.

55 8.6 Why are there only two major parties in the U.S.? 8.6 a. Only two parties are constitutionally allowed b. Two parties fulfill preferences of all voters c. No interest in additional parties d. Winner-take-all elections

56 8.6 Why are there only two major parties in the U.S.? 8.6 a. Only two parties are constitutionally allowed b. Two parties fulfill preferences of all voters c. No interest in additional parties d. Winner-take-all elections

57 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of responsible party government.

58 Understanding Political Parties 8.7 Democracy and Responsible Party Government: How Should We Govern? American Political Parties and the Scope of Government

59 Democracy and Responsible 8.7 Party Government: How Should We Govern? Responsible party model Distinct governing programs Internal cohesion and commitment Major party must implement program Major party must accept responsibility Party leadership weak in U.S. Blue Dog Democrats Is this good or bad?

60 TABLE 8.2 Partisan divisions on key roll call votes during the Bush presidency 8.7

61 American Politics and the 8.7 Scope of Government Not as broad as in Europe Health care example Parties not disciplined Hard to cut spending Not disciplined enough to say no Get more for own constituents

62 Divided We Govern Reading

63 Discussion Questions Find a partner and answer the following discussion questions. Write your responses on your own sheet of paper to turn in at the end of class. - How did the modern two-party system develop in the United States? 8 - What are party realignments and when have they occurred? - What role do parties play in American democracy?

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