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1 AGENDA Thurs 10/22 & Fri 10/23 RAP #24: Blue v. Red History of Political Parties HW: Party Platform: Part 1 & 2 DUE: 10/26 EC #2 DUE: Tues 10/27 & Wed10/28 Midterm Exam & Essay Thurs 10/29 & Fri 10/30

2 RAP #24: Blue v. Red Blue Issue / Platform Red Increase Decrease Increase Raise No Pro-choice Yes Increase Strong Federal Government States Rights Taxes Government Regulation of Business Prayer in School Abortion Rights Gun Control Minimum Wage Laws Decrease Increase Lower Lower Yes Pro-Life No Same/Decrease

3 Political Party Match: What are you?

4 Party membership patterns 2/3 of Americans vote like their parents. In recent decades Jews, African Americans, Union members, and Catholics have more often voted Democrat. White males, the business community, and Protestants have more often voted Republican.

5 History of Politics Democrats and Republicans main goal is to gain power by winning elections.

6 Parties Political parties are organizations seeking to achieve power by electing its members to public office. Our main parties are Republicans and Democrats Parties have many roles

7 Roles of Parties Recruit candidates and support campaigns Parties want to control government by getting their candidates into office, they pick who they think will be the best person/most likely to be elected Parties often also provide funding for campaigns Organize elections and inform voters Promote voter interest and participation Organize government Congress and most state legislatures party aligned more members in government, more powerful party

8 Roles of Parties (cont.) Unite diverse interests Build coalitions based on shared beliefs and common goals Create platforms = position on important issues Loyal opposition to party in power Critics of majority party s proposals Watchdogs for corruption and/or abuses of power

9 Two Party System In America we have a 2 party system That does not mean that only 2 parties exist but that only 2 parties dominate politics in America No legal (constitutional) reason for our 2 party system traditional, money, and the current state of the electoral system lock it into place

10 Alternatives to a 2 party system Multiparty system- would function largely like ours but third parties would have a better chance of holding office Usually smaller parties band together in a coalition to compete with larger parties or to run the government together Can be a more effective representation of the people but it can also lead to instability and deadlocks

11 Alternatives cont. One Party system Basically a dictatorship One party = No party

12 America s 2-party system is born History Started with Alexander Hamilton Federalists» Favored strong national government» Northern commercial and industrial interests» Adams loses to Jefferson party disappears Thomas Jefferson Democrat-Republicans (Anti-federalists)» Favored strong state governments» Southern farmers & rural interests

13 Twisted Timeline Pre-Constitution Federalists (Hamilton) & Anti-Federalists (Jefferson) Constitution Ratified Washington = President appoints both to cabinet to reduce rivalries (to no avail) Federalists: strong central govt & liberal (broad) interpretation Jefferson resigns to form Jeffersonian Republicans, aka Democrat-Republicans, aka Anti-Federalists: state rights, strict interpretation

14 Twisted Timeline 1800: A shift in perspectives Jefferson s Republicans want stronger govt to keep their policies Federalists move to more state rights LA purchase: implied power to make treaties Loose interpretation for Republicans Federalists wanted strict interpretation

15 Twisted Timeline 1812 Democrat-Republicans become nationalists Federalists call for Northeastern states to secede Not a popular position and lose favor Era of Good Feelings 1824 Corrupt bargain w/ Adams, Clay against Jackson

16 Twisted Timeline 1828 Jackson s revenge = Democrat party Whig party = Jackson s enemies

17 Twisted Timeline 1850s Splitting Hairs (Whig) Slavery divides Whigs and falls apart Antislavery activists (abolitionists) and formerly-known-as-whigs form Republican party in 1854 Abraham Lincoln and Republicans established as 2 nd major party

18 The Democratic Donkey The now-famous Democratic donkey was first associated with Democrat Andrew Jackson's 1828 presidential campaign. (P.126) His opponents called him a jackass (a donkey), and Jackson decided to use the image of the strong-willed animal on his campaign posters. Later, cartoonist Thomas Nast used the Democratic donkey in newspaper cartoons and made the symbol famous.

19

20 The Republican Elephant Nast invented another famous symbol the Republican elephant. In a cartoon that appeared in Harper's Weekly in 1874, Nast drew a donkey clothed in lion's skin, scaring away all the animals at the zoo. One of those animals, the elephant, was labeled The Republican Vote. That's all it took for the elephant to become associated with the Republican Party. Democrats today say the donkey is smart and brave, while Republicans say the elephant is strong and dignified.

21

22 Party Eras Since 1800, one or the other major parties dominated President & usually both houses of Congress (pg. 754) 1 st Era: Democrats [Dem, Dem-Reps] ( ) 13 of 15 Presidential elections (1 st 3 elections=no party/federalist) 2 nd Era: Republicans ( ) 13 of 18 Presidential Elections 3 rd Era: Democrats ( ) 7 of 9 Presidential Elections 4 th Era: Modern (1969-Present) Republicans = 7 of 11 elections, yet Dems rule Congress

23 The Era of Democrats Jackson s party: coalition of farmers, pioneers, slave holders South and West Three fundamental changes to politics Voting for all white males Increases in elected offices Spoils system (vote for us, we ll award you) Public office, contracts, other govt favor Jackson s opponents: Whigs (led by Clay) Slavery splits parties (Whig leaders dead)

24 The Era of Republicans The election of Abraham Lincoln AND the Civil War marked the beginning of the reign of the Republican party. Business people, farmers, newly freed African Americans backed the party.

25 The Return of the Democrats The Great Depression changed the way people thought about the government. Democrats built a strong new base of southerners, small farmers, labor union members, and city people. The only Republican elected during this time was war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower.

26 The Start of a New Era During much of this era we have had a divided government Especially when no party controls both legislative and executive branches. Divided government can cause gridlock.

27 4 Types of Minor Parties Ideological parties -based on certain social, economic, or political ideas. They tend to stay around for a long time. Socialist Party ( ) Communist Party ( s) Libertarian Party (1971-present) Single-issue parties -tend to fade away Know Nothing Party (1850s) Prohibition Party (1869 present) National Women s Party( ) Right to Life Party (1970-present),

28 4 Types of Minor Parties Economic protest parties - appear during tough financial times. Greenback party ( ) Populist Party ( ) Reform party (1995-present) Splinter parties - parties that have broken away from one of the major parties. Usually has a strong leader who did not get a major party s nomination. Progressive Bull Moose party ( ) split votes in 1912 T. Roosevelt/Taft States Rights Dixiecrat Party (1948) American Independent - segregationist Governor George Wallace (1967- present) (**In CA = Constitution Party) Green Party (1996-present)

29 Minor Parties What does it mean to call a minor party a spoiler? A spoiler takes votes away from a major candidate, possibly causing the candidates defeat. Examples?

30 Future of the Major Parties More voters have strong ties to single-issues. They are for or against that candidate based on his/her stand on that particular issue. (i.e. Iraq, health care, abortion, etc.) More independents More split-ticket voting Candidates rely more on technology- TV, internet

31 HW: Party Platform: Part 1 Due: Mon 10/26 Write an overview of the specific political party from your I side with Quiz (6-8 sentences) (20pts) Write a response to your match with the candidate (4-6 sentences) (20 pts) Research parties/ideologies of two other political parties (one that is VERY different and another that is SIMILAR to your match/placement on the spectrum) Write an overview of the parties, specifically focusing on 2 areas of most interest to you (6-8 sentences for each party) (40 pts)

32 HW: Party Platform: Part 2 DUE: Mon 10/26 Create your own political platform Must have a minimum of 5 issues from the following list: Social, Environmental, Economic, Domestic Policy, Health Care, Foreign Policy, Education, Electoral, Immigration, Science, Other Clearly explain your perspective and plan for how you would want your party to deal w/ each issue (2-3 sentences per issue) (20 pts)

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