Chapter 8. Political Parties

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1 Chapter 8 Political Parties

2 Factions Tyranny of the Majority

3 Factions Cause corruption Create divisiveness The problem, in a democracy, comes when a faction is more than 50%, because then it can vote in things that might be very harmful to the other 49%. This is sometimes referred to as tyranny of the majority. A faction in a democracy is most dangerous when it is a majority.

4 Factions are a natural outgrowth of a free society. They exist because we have different tastes, and simply view things differently but most importantly, Madison says, factions exist because of the uneven distribution of wealth that exists in a free society. In other words the biggest source of conflict in society is the battle between the haves and have nots, the rich and the poor.

5 Solution!

6 Solution! Create a large republic, that is a large country based on representative Democracy. Madison offers 2 rationales for this.

7 #1 Giving power to elected representatives allows us to be governed by those whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice (the country s interest) to temporary or partial considerations.

8 #2 The creation of a large country with a strong central government will enervate the majority, making them relatively powerless, and thus protect the rights of the minority. Society itself will be broken into so many parts, interests, and classes of citizens, that the rights of individuals or of the minority, will be in little danger from interested combinations of the majority. Fed. #51

9 Effect of Largeness In a large country, there will be many groups with many interests and particular outlooks, making it less likely any one group will be a majority. Secondly, in a large country, even if a particular faction is a majority, it will be difficult for them to be effective They will not discover their own strength. They will not be able to act in unison.

10 Political Scientists today say

11 Political Scientists today say Political parties are healthy and contribute to our democracy.

12 Party Competition

13 Win Elections

14

15

16 Political Party Team trying to control the governing apparatus by winning elections

17 Three Headed Giant

18 Party in the Electorate

19 Party in the Electorate Largest part of a party No dues, membership cards or rules No obligations

20 Party as an Organization National office, staff, headquarters Run the party between elections Plan the conventions

21 Party in Government

22 Party in Government Elected officials Must translate party platform into policy

23 Party in the Electorate Party Organization Party in Government

24 Where do the elephant and donkey come from?

25

26

27

28 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution

29 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution

30 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates

31 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates

32 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns

33 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns

34 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns 4. Give cues to voters

35 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns 4. Give cues to voters Socio-Economic Status (SES) Education Urban/Suburban/Exurban/Rural Race Gender Employment Geographical Region Religion Soccer Moms & NASCAR Dads

36

37 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns 4. Give cues to voters 5. Articulate policies

38 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns 4. Give cues to voters 5. Articulate policies

39 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns 4. Give cues to voters 5. Articulate policies 6. Coordinate policymaking

40 What do parties do? 1. Linkage institution 2. Pick candidates 3. Run campaigns 4. Give cues to voters 5. Articulate policies 6. Coordinate policymaking

41 Political Party Theory #1: The Responsible Party Model

42 Political Party Theory #1: The Responsible Party Model Parties must have clear policy platforms and offer distinct choices to the voters

43 Political Party Theory #1: The Responsible Party Model Parties must have clear policy platforms and offer distinct choices to the voters Voters must be aware of the differences between the parties and vote based on party platforms

44 Political Party Theory #1: The Responsible Party Model Parties must have clear policy platforms and offer distinct choices to the voters Voters must be aware of the differences between the parties and vote based on party platforms Once elected, members of each party must actively work to enact their party s platform

45 Political Party Theory #1: The Responsible Party Model Parties must have clear policy platforms and offer distinct choices to the voters Voters must be aware of the differences between the parties and vote based on party platforms Once elected, members of each party must actively work to enact their party s platform

46 Political Party Theory #2: The Downs Model Rational-choice theory Assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives

47 Political Party Theory #2: The Downs Model Rational-choice theory Assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives Downs Model Voters maximize chances that policies they favor are adopted by government. Parties want to win elected office.

48

49 Political Party Theory #2: The Downs Model

50

51 The Party in the Electorate Party image: voter s perception

52

53

54 The Party in the Electorate Party image: voter s perception Party identification: a self-proclaimed preference

55 The Party in the Electorate Party image: voter s perception Party identification: a self-proclaimed preference Ticket-splitting: voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices Independents are most likely to split tickets. No state or race is completely safe due to split tickets.

56 The Party in the Electorate

57 The Party in the Electorate Party image: voter s perception Party identification: a self-proclaimed preference Ticket-splitting: voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices Independents are most likely to split tickets. No state or race is completely safe due to split tickets.

58 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington People that work for the party.

59 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington People that work for the party. Local Parties Party Machines: a type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements to win votes and to govern

60 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington People that work for the party. Local Parties Party Machines: a type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements to win votes and to govern Patronage: a job, promotion or contract given for political reasons rather than merit; used by party machines

61 Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall

62 Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall

63 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington People that work for the party. Local Parties Party Machines: a type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements to win votes and to govern Patronage: a job, promotion or contract given for political reasons rather than merit; used by party machines Due to progressive reforms, urban party organizations are generally weak. Revitalization of party organization at county level

64 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington People that work for the party. Local Parties Party Machines: a type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements to win votes and to govern Patronage: a job, promotion or contract given for political reasons rather than merit; used by party machines Due to progressive reforms, urban party organizations are generally weak. Revitalization of party organization at county level

65 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington People that work for the party. Local Parties Party Machines: a type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements to win votes and to govern Patronage: a job, promotion or contract given for political reasons rather than merit; used by party machines Due to progressive reforms, urban party organizations are generally weak. Revitalization of party organization at county level

66 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems Closed primaries: Only people who have registered with the party can vote for that party s candidates. Open primaries: Voters decide on Election Day whether they want to vote in the Democrat or Republican primary. Blanket primaries: Voters are presented with a list of candidates from all parties. State parties are better organized in terms of headquarters and budgets than they used to be.

67 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems

68 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems Closed primaries: Only people who have registered with the party can vote for that party s candidates. Open primaries: Voters decide on Election Day whether they want to vote in the Democrat or Republican primary. Blanket primaries: Voters are presented with a list of candidates from all parties. State parties are better organized in terms of headquarters and budgets than they used to be.

69 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems Closed primaries: Only people who have registered with the party can vote for that party s candidates.

70 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems Closed primaries: Only people who have registered with the party can vote for that party s candidates. Open primaries: Voters decide on Election Day whether they want to vote in the Democrat or Republican primary.

71 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems Closed primaries: Only people who have registered with the party can vote for that party s candidates. Open primaries: Voters decide on Election Day whether they want to vote in the Democrat or Republican primary. Blanket primaries: Voters are presented with a list of candidates from all parties.

72 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems Closed primaries: Only people who have registered with the party can vote for that party s candidates. Open primaries: Voters decide on Election Day whether they want to vote in the Democrat or Republican primary. Blanket primaries: Voters are presented with a list of candidates from all parties. State parties are better organized in terms of headquarters and budgets than they used to be.

73 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The 50 State Party Systems Closed primaries: Only people who have registered with the party can vote for that party s candidates. Open primaries: Voters decide on Election Day whether they want to vote in the Democrat or Republican primary. Blanket primaries: Voters are presented with a list of candidates from all parties. State parties are better organized in terms of headquarters and budgets than they used to be.

74 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The National Party Organizations

75 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The National Party Organizations National Convention: the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and the party s platform

76 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The National Party Organizations National Convention: the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and the party s platform National Committee: one of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions

77 The Party Organizations: From the Grass Roots to Washington The National Party Organizations National Convention: the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and the party s platform National Committee: one of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions National Chairperson: responsible for day-to-day activities of the party

78 The Party in Government: Promises and Policy

79 The Party in Government: Promises and Policy Party members actually elected to government Check me out!!!

80 The Party in Government: Promises and Policy Party members actually elected to government Which party controls government has policy consequences. Only 10% of campaign promises ignored. They really do try!!!

81 The Party in Government: Promises and Policy Party members actually elected to government Which party controls government has policy consequences. Coalition: a group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends

82 The Big Tent Party?

83 Third Way Democrats Jewish Democrats

84 Goldwater Republicans NASCAR Republicans

85 The Party in Government: Promises and Policy Party members actually elected to government Which party controls government has policy consequences. Coalition: a group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends Parties and politicians generally act on their campaign promises.

86 Democratic Party Platform Party Platforms Republican Party Platform Green Party Libertarian Party

87

88 PARTY ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY

89 A party era refers to? a. the life span of a party from its beginning to end. b. the period between two elections, during which two parties are assessed as to how powerful they are relative to each other. c. a period of years during which a party is born and begins to run candidates for office d. a period of time during which there is one dominant majority party that wins all or nearly all elections.

90 A party era refers to? a. the life span of a party from its beginning to end. b. the period between two elections, during which two parties are assessed as to how powerful they are relative to each other. c. a period of years during which a party is born and begins to run candidates for office d. a period of time during which there is one dominant majority party that wins all or nearly all elections.

91 What is a critical (or realigning) election? a. an election that involves decisions about war. b. an election where new issues emerge. c. an election where a majority party is replaced by the minority party. d. both b. and c. e. all of the above.

92 What is a critical (or realigning) election? a. an election that involves decisions about war. b. an election where new issues emerge. c. an election where a majority party is replaced by the minority party. d. both b. and c. e. all of the above.

93 Party realignment refers to? a. when a party moves its national headquarters. b. when a party rewrites its party platform. c. the displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually in a critical election. d. when a party nominates a new, fresh face for the presidency.

94 Party realignment refers to? a. when a party moves its national headquarters. b. when a party rewrites its party platform. c. the displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually in a critical election. d. when a party nominates a new, fresh face for the presidency.

95 Party Eras in American History Party Eras Historical periods in which a majority of votes cling to the party in power Critical (realigning) Election 1824, 1860, 1896, 1932 An electoral earthquake where new issues and new coalitions emerge 1. Intense voter turnout 2. Disruption of traditional voting patterns 3. Changes in power structure of political community 4. Formation of new and durable political groupings Party Realignment The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election

96 Party Eras in American History : The First Party System Madison warned of factions Washington stayed above politics. Watch out for the Beware of Factions baneful effects of the Spirit of Party.

97 Party Eras in American History : The First Party System Hamilton, we need a coalition to pass out legislation. I will form a coalition of federalists to support us!

98 That s Alexander Hamilton. The first Secretary of the Treasury. The one on the $10 bill.

99 Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson is none too happy with Hamilton s coalition building. That Hamilton, he s thinks he so special, and his ideas are plain dangerous.

100 Don t get me wrong, I fully support George and all, but I cannot stomach Hamilton and his coalition of Federalists.

101 Now, free of my obligations to Washington I shall form my own coalition of those opposed to these dangerous policies and being soft on Britain.

102 Thus is born the first opposition political party: the Republicans, later renamed the Democratic- Republicans, and later still just the Democrats, yes today s Democrats.

103 The Era of the Democratic-Republicans #3 Jefferson #4 Madison #5 Monroe #6 John Quincy Adams

104 The Era of the Democratic-Republicans #3 Jefferson #4 Madison #5 Monroe #6 John Quincy Adams

105 Party Eras in American History : The First Party System : Jackson, the Democrats vs. the Whigs

106 Party Eras in American History : The First Party System : Jackson, the Democrats vs. the Whigs

107 Andrew Jackson: Hero of the Battle of New Orleans Jackson is credited as founder of the modern political party. New coalition of Westerners, Southerners and new immigrants Originally a Democratic-Republican, his party would soon be simply called the Democrats.

108 Whigs succeeded the Federalists. Compromised of Northern industrialists and wealthy Southern planters, they were united more in their opposition to Democratic policies than on any issues with which they agreed.

109 The Era of Jacksonian Democrats vs. the Whigs #7 Jackson Democrat #8 Van Buren Democrat #9 Harrison Whig #10 Tyler Whig

110 The Era of Jacksonian Democrats vs. the Whigs #11 Polk Democrat #12 Taylor- Whig #13 Fillmore Whig #14 Pierce Democrat #15 Buchanan - Democrat

111 Party Eras in American History : The First Party System : Jackson, the Democrats vs. the Whigs : The Two Republican Eras

112 Slavery Slavery split the Democrats and Whigs. Slavery and expansion Abolitionist movement Republicans Emerged as the anti-slavery party in 1850 s Lincoln elected in 1860

113 1. That the history of the nation during the last four years called it into existence 2. maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Federal Constitution 3. abhorrence [for] all schemes for disunion 5. present Democratic Administration has far exceeded our worst apprehension in its measureless subserviency to sectional interest Kansas 6. reckless extravagance..of the Federal Government 7. slavery [expanded] into any or all of the territories of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy 8. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom

114

115 Party Eras in American History 1896 Election Most bitter is U.S. history? Gold vs. Silver Free Silver Democrats Help debtors, western farmers Republicans Gold Standard Industrialists, bankers, urban workers

116

117 Party Eras in American History : The First Party System : Jackson, the Democrats vs. the Whigs : The Two Republican Eras : The New Deal Coalition

118 The New Deal Coalition Cities Unions Catholics and Jews Poor Southerners African Americans

119 Party Eras in American History

120 Party Eras in American History : The First Party System : Jackson, the Democrats vs. the Whigs : The Two Republican Eras : The New Deal Coalition 1968-Present: Divided Party Government

121 Party Eras in American History Today we have Divided government: one party controls Congress and the other controls White House Divided government due to: Party dealignment: disengagement of people from parties as evidenced by shrinking party identification Party neutrality: people are indifferent towards the two parties

122 The Case for Divided Government Point One. The rate of growth of real (inflation-adjusted) federal spending is usually lower with divided government. The only two long periods of fiscal restraint were the Eisenhower administration and the Clinton administration, during both of which the opposition party controlled Congress. Conversely, the only long period of unusual fiscal expansion was the Kennedy/Johnson administration, which brought us both the Great Society and the Vietnam War with the support of the same party in Congress.

123 The Case for Divided Government Point Two. The probability that a major reform will last is usually higher with a divided government because of bipartisan support. The Reagan tax laws of 1981 and 1986, for example, were both approved by a House of Representatives controlled by the Democrats and have largely survived. The major potential reforms of agriculture, telecommunications, and welfare in 1996 were approved by Clinton and a Republican Congress, although only the welfare reform has survived subsequent legislative and regulatory changes.

124 The Case for Divided Government Point Three. The prospect of a major war is usually higher with a united government. Each of the four major American wars in the 20th century was initiated by a Democratic president with Democratic Congress. The war in Iraq, initiated by a Republican president with a Republican Congress, is consistent with this pattern.

125 The Case for Divided Government 1. American voters, in their unarticulated collective wisdom, have voted for a divided federal government for most of the past 50 years. 2. Divided government is not the stuff of which legends are made. 3. The separation of powers is probably a better protection of our liberties when the presidency and the Congress are controlled by different parties.

126 Party Eras in American History

127 Party Eras in American History Party realignment: displacement of the majority party by the minority party people changing from one party to another Party dealignment: people gradually moving away from both parties.

128

129

130

131

132

133 Third Parties: Their Impact on American Politics Third parties: electoral contenders other than the two party parties; rarely win elections

134 Third Parties: Their Impact on American Politics Third parties: electoral contenders other than the two party parties; rarely win elections Third parties are important. Are safety valves for popular discontent Bring new groups and ideas into politics

135 Third Parties: Their Impact on American Politics Third parties: electoral contenders other than the two party parties; rarely win elections Third parties are important. Are safety valves for popular discontent Bring new groups and ideas into politics Two-party system Discourages extreme views Contributes to political ambiguity

136 Multiparty Systems in Other Countries Winner-take-all system: legislative seats awarded only to first place finishers Proportional Representation: legislative seats awarded based on votes received by the party - more votes, more seats Coalition Government: two or more parties join to form a majority in a national legislature

137 Proportional Representation in a multiparty system.

138 Winner-take-all in the U.S. Congress

139 Understanding Political Parties Parties are essential elements of democracy Democracy and Responsible Party Government Responsible Party Model 1. Parties have distinct comprehensive programs. 2. Candidates are committed to the program. 3. The majority party must carry out its program. 4. The majority party must accept responsibility. American political parties fall short of these conditions. No mechanism for party discipline

140 Understanding Political Parties American Political Parties and the Scope of Government Lack of uniformity keeps government small Big programs tend to fall But also makes cutting government programs difficult Individuals focus on getting more from government for their own constituents

141 Understanding Political Parties Is the Party Over? Political parties are no longer main source of information for voters; media are Yet parties will play an important but diminished role in American politics State and national party organizations have become more visible and active Majority of people still identify with a party

142 Summary Parties are a pervasive linkage institution in American politics. Party in electorate, government, and as organization America has a two-party system. The decentralized nature of political parties makes major change difficult and encourages individualism in politics.

Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth Edition, and Texas Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry. Chapter 8.

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